Tag Archives: genocide

Death of Japan

Hiroshima to Fukushima, Finishing the Job

A Time for the Kill

by Bob Nichols, VeteransToday.com, August 18th, 2011

(San Francisco) Two 10,000 lb (4,545 kg) uranium poison gas “dirty” bombs with small nuclear  dispersion devises set Japan on the road to extinction on August 6, 1945 and August 9, 1945 at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

A row of six modified and enlarged US Navy submarine reactors pioneered by US Navy Admiral Hyman Rickover and manufactured by the US based General Electric Corp (GE) finished the kill March 11, 2011. Thanks to the US Navy designed and GE built atomic reactors, the Japanese people are dying, the country of Japan is no more and the land is permanently uninhabitable.

IAEA team inspects Fuku damage May 11 2011 AP

IAEA team inspects Fuku damage May 11 2011 AP

Lethal nuclear vapors created by the destroyed Navy/GE reactors and thousands of tons of garbaged and burning old reactor cores are spreading invisible radioactive death and sickness all over the world.

What’s more: the atomic reactors spilled their burning guts into the basements and there is evidence the melted reactor cores are still “reacting” 160 days out. Shutting them down is mostly just plain impossible. The burning, radioactive gates of hell are still open wide. Breathe deep everyone. Breathe your own poisoned Fuku tainted air.

The Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

The best measure of population growth or shrinkage is a country’s Total Fertility Rate (TFR). It is, simply put, the average number of children women have in a society over their child bearing years. Two kids per woman is the “replacement value” for one woman and one male. Two kids per woman means the man and woman replace themselves and the next generation will be the same size as their preceding generation.

The higher the TFR number, the more the population will grow and expand. On the other hand, a TFR number below 2 kids per woman means the population is shrinking for the next generation. Nuclear weaponeers who know about these things say it is impossible for a society to recover, or grow again, with a TFR below 1.3 kids per woman. In short, that society is doomed. Japan’s TFR plummeted to 1.2 since the detonation of the two 10,000 lb sperm and ovary destroying uranium poison gas bombs in August, 1945.

The so-called “Atomic Bomb” development and deployment was under the control of the Radiological Warfare Committee (RWC) of the US Department of War. The WWII RWC had the same members as the WWI Poison Gas Committee. They were, of course, doing the same job, with the same people. For WWII that job expanded to include the Manhattan Project. It was all about the development of advanced weapons. That was about 70 years ago and the frenzied work pace has never stopped or slowed.

The US War Department and American society’s leaders were big on using creepy poison gas to exterminate those who needed to be exterminated. In a cost effective manner, of course. After all, it is a big planet.

Using atomized radioactive particles that last for ever to poison and contaminate the land and all the people in and around target countries was their idea and they loved it. They thought it was the best idea they had had since WWI – or so they thought.

The rest of the world had gone through a big re-think on the messy subject of poison gas and its use. Other countries were dead set against the use of poison gas. The other countries even went so far as to make poison gas use a War Crime.

This was inconvenient, to say the least, for the US War Department’s Poison Gas Committee, now just a bunch of thuggish war criminals, instead of high society dandies. So, the War Department and the leaders of American society on the powerful Poison Gas Committee changed the name of the Poison Gas Committee to the Radiological Warfare Committee. Boom, problem solved.

Thus, suitably camouflaged with a few words to fool the weak minded, the Poison Gas Committee continued on its lethal mission. The Committee decided a big uranium poison gas bomb to contaminate whole countries, control wildly breeding populations and lower the IQ of the lesser classes (read this as coloured, with a “u”) of society, thereby making them suitable for employment as low paid, disposable workers was the perfect solution to intractable problems in the world.

Jim Conant, President of Harvard University, was just the kind of visionary high society killer who would deliver the Manhattan Project’s uranium poison gas bombs just in time to kick start the slaughter of millions.

Thanks to Jim’s hard work on the RW Committee Japan’s TFR (Total Fertility Rate) would plummet after the atomic bombing. This was primarily because of a fine layer of uranium gas and dust that covered Japan in August, 1945. Uranium gas warfare destroyed Japan’s human breeding capacity, just as uranium was known to do.

Finishing the Job, a Time for a Kill

Friday, March 11, 2011 was the day the country of Japan officially died. A human baby’s gestation period in its mother is normally 270 days. Two hundred and seventy days from conception to delivery as a full term, normal infant boy or girl.

The 270th day from March 11, 2011 is December 5, 2011. I predict a bloody December as many normal peoples’ hopes for a healthy kid are shattered beyond all recognition by a Fukushima Daiichi crop of monster, deformed, crazed or dead kids. The gruesome harvest of dead babies and fetuses in the womb, has already started.

December, 2011 will not be good month for expectant mothers-to-be. Tiny bits of radioactive uranium isotopes in the phosphate rich sperm and eggs of humans will be the exact cause. Fukushima originated uranium isotopes make a bee line to human sources of phosphates, the one mineral with a natural affinity to uranium isotopes. Phosphates are in human brains, bones, gonads and mitochondrial DNA, among other structures.

Frightened governments and their hunkered down spokesmen will lie like dogs to still the as yet unsuspecting Normal people and Normals who are starting to catch on that something has gone way wrong.

The coming Fuku Kid Disaster and Fuku Kill Off

First and foremost will be the ever nasty New York Times (NYT.) When it comes to something really, vitally important to all our futures, our families and friends, we can always count on the NYT to lie through their teeth for the nuclear industry criminals and mass murderers. That is nothing new for the Times, they always have.

 

Sept 1945 Pulitzer Prize winning Lie in NYT No Radiation in Hiroshima

Sept 1945 Pulitzer Prize winning Lie in NYT No Radiation in Hiroshima

What’s more, the dominant owners of the NYT, the Sultzberger family, like it that way. The family has had a slash and burn radiation policy ever since Hiroshima in 1945. No Lie was too Big, in fact, the Bigger and more Bizarre the better. Germany’s WWII Fuhrer Adolph Hitler may have coined the concept “The Big Lie;” but, the New York Times spun it out to a degree that would make even Hitler proud.

The Radiation Warfare Committee controlled Manhattan Project to build the Atomic Bomb got its name from its organizer, the Manhattan Engineering District of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The Sultzbergers’ NY Times was only too eager to help the fledgling CIA and the US War Department lie about the nuke bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan that incinerated hundreds of thousands of people. Many were literally vaporized into nothingness.

The Big Lie Lives On with the NY Times

A few weeks after the atomic bombing, Australian journalist Wilfred Burchett managed to sneak into occupied Japan and nuked Nagasaki in spite of US Army General Douglas MacArthur’s prohibition. Burchett, an experienced war correspondent, was utterly stunned at the extent of the other worldly devastation and killing of the Atomic Bomb.

Mr. Burchett coined the term “Atomic Plague” which then swept around the world on a wave of revulsion at what the Americans had done. Diplomats and other people politically or militarily in-the-know knew the Japanese were eager to surrender and that President Truman lied in his bull shit speech about the Atomic Bomb “saving American lives” that would be forfeit if the US were to invade Japan.

The six devastated US Navy/GE reactors at Fukushima Daiichi finished the Kill Truman ordered 65 years, 7 months, and 6 days later on March 11, 2011.

Sayonara, Japan, you are history.

“Who’s Next?”

Good question. There are 438 big reactors, just stationary nuclear weapons really, in the world. 104 big nuke reactors are in America and many, like the Fuku reactors,  are by the sea due to the exorbitant, one billion gallons a day water demand of the reactors. Even the inland reactors are exquisitely vulnerable to becoming another Fukushima. If any lose electricity and off site feeds, a Fuku type meltdown is guaranteed.

The people in the Japanese NHK TV video below live in Northern Japan. They must evacuate and many are dying. Many won’t leave, preferring Denial as the better course to reality and Evacuation. After all, you can’t see, feel, hear or taste radiation as it liquefies your insides.

Any of us could be next. Dying in adult diapers praying for morphine is not a good way to check out.

The US Military and probably Russia’s Military, the former Soviet Union, possess weapons that can accomplish this kind of devastation. They should, at least the US has devoted billions to controlling what the DOD calls “earth processes” for 60 years. That would be your basic hurricanes, tornadoes, rain, drought, earthquakes, tsunamis, rogue waves and volcanoes.

Even a medium sized tropical storm, not even big enough to be a hurricane or typhoon, contains as much energy as 10,000 Hiroshima sized Atomic Bombs. If the War Department, later renamed to the Department of Defense to confuse the do-gooders, could control the weather or “Earth Processes” they would control the world. That’s the long held dream of Psychos and control freaks everywhere.

Is the DOD responsible for all so-called “natural” disasters? Of course not, that is silly; and, the DOD has the perfect built in deniability. They can just shrug their shoulders and say “It’s just the weather” or the classic one for these Psycho monsters “It’s an Act of God!”

During the known nuclear weapons detonation era the US exploded some 1,300 nuclear weapons, Russia about 800 and the other nuclear powers trailed way behind. Did you ever wonder why the supposedly super smart Americans took 1,300 nuke detonations to get the nuke weapons right and the Chinese only a few dozen? The Israelis have more than 400 nukes and did it with zero detonations.

What is the story here? Maybe the Manhattan Project physicists and scientists were up to something else – something bigger than the Bomb.

It appears from all available declassified evidence, including former US Secretary of Defense Cohen, and many US Congressional hearings as well as scuttlebutt around the Nuclear Weapons Labs that the Earth itself is, in fact, the biggest weapon of all. That is the ultimate Control over Planet Earth. And that, my friends, is exactly the plan of the US Military and political leadership.

But, don’t take my word for it. Research it yourself. There’s a world of info out there, “Go For It.”

[End]

Copyright by Bob Nichols August 18, 2011. All rights reserved. Distribute with credit and all Notes and Sources. Reach Bob Nichols at duweapons@gmail.com

Notes and Sources.

Nucléaire / Nuclear : Collaborating to create a radioactive fallout contamination map

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVzX3gAxp58&feature=player_embedded  A NHK Television of Japan production showing independent scientists as they construct a radiation map of Northern Japan, including the Evacuation Zone around the six trashed nuclear power plants at Fukushima Daiichi, Japan.

This video is a response video of the respected nuclear authority Prof Kodama of the UIniversity of Tokyo. Prof. Kodama Angry about Japanese Gov.’s Gross Negligence (Part 2)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mDlEOmcALwQ&feature=watch_response_rev

Tokyo: 230,000 becquerels per square meter of Cesium on athletic field in Koto — 6 times as high as limit set for radiation control zones, June 9, 2011.

1,500 tons of radioactive sludge cannot be buried – NHK News, July 29, 2011.

Highest levels of radiation since March 11 detected at Fukushima nuclear reactors, August 09, 2011.

Duration calculation results. From and including: Friday, March 11, 2011 To and including: Tuesday, August 17, 2011. It is 160 days from the start date to the end date, end date included. Or 5 months, 6 days including the end date.

From and including: Monday, August 6, 1945 To and including: Friday, March 11, 2011 It is 23,959 days from the start date to the end date, end date included. Or 65 years, 7 months, 6 days including the end date.

Tweets from Japan: “When we wash their hair, it comes off in a clump — It is really scary,” August 13th, 2011 at 06:30 AM

Tweets from a nurse (my very good guess from her tweets) in a large hospital in Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture on August 10:

[Translation:]

Increasing number of patients with unexplainable decrease in white blood cells, headache, nausea. They are diagnosed for existing illness and undergo treatment, but they don’t respond to the treatment at all. I’ve seen those cases in my hospital. I’m not saying they are all because of the radiation exposure, but I’m telling you what I’m seeing.

[Translation:]

When we wash their hair, it comes off in a clump. It is really scary. The doctor says, “I really wonder why the white blood cell count is down…” Doctor, don’t be so relaxed about it. There is going to be more and more people who don’t respond to treatment.

The 2053 nuclear tests and explosions that took place between 1945 and 1998 are plotted visually and audibly on a world map.
http://www.ctbto.org/specials/1945-1998-by-isao-hashimoto/)

“1945 to 1998″ by ISAO HASHIMOTO.

About “1945-1998″ ©2003

“This piece of work is a bird’s eye view of the history by scaling down a month length of time into one second.  No letter is used for equal messaging to all viewers without language barrier.  The blinking light, sound and the numbers on the world map show when, where and how many experiments each country have conducted.  I created this work for the means of an interface to the people who are yet to know of the extremely grave, but present problem of the world.”

Contact the artist:

Should you have any query regarding this artwork, please contact  e-mail address below:
hashi123@amy.hi-ho.ne.jp
* The number excludes both tests by North Korea (October 2006 and May 2009).

“Having laid out this rather bleak story, I do want to end with a quote from Wilfred Burchett, who along with Hersey and a few others, showed what the media was capable of doing when it sided with humanity rather than with official narratives and nuclear glory: As Burchett put it, “In visiting Hiroshima, I felt that I was seeing in the last days of [World War 2] what would be the fate of hundreds of cities in a [World War 3]. If that does not make a journalist want to shape history in the right direction, what does?”

http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2007/04/21_mohan_nuclearism_and_the_legacy.htm

Copyright by Bob Nichols August 18, 2011. All rights reserved. Distribute with credit and all Notes and Sources. Reach Bob Nichols at duweapons@gmail.com

Advertisements
Tagged , , , ,

Deadly Faith

An Analysis of Jonestown

by Neal Osherow (n.d.)

Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it. — Quotation on placard over Jim Jones’ rostrum at Jonestown

Close to one thousand people died at Jonestown. The members of the Peoples Temple settlement in Guyana, under the direction of the Reverend Jim Jones, fed a poison-laced drink to their children, administered the potion to their infants, and drank it themselves. Their bodies were found lying together, arm in arm; over 900 perished.

How could such a tragedy occur? The images of an entire community destroying itself, of parents killing their own children, appears incredible. The media stories about the event and full-color pictures of the scene documented some of its horror but did little to illuminate the causes or to explain the processes that led to the deaths. Even a year afterwards, a CBS Evening News broadcast asserted that it was widely assumed that time would offer some explanation for the ritualistic suicide/murder of over 900 people… One year later, it does not appear that any lessons have been uncovered (CBS News,1979).

The story of the Peoples Temple is not enshrouded in mystery, however. Jim Jones had founded his church over twenty years before, in Indiana. His preaching stressed the need for racial brotherhood and integration, and his group helped feed the poor and find them jobs. As his congregation grew, Jim Jones gradually increased the discipline and dedication that he required from the members. In 1965, he moved to northern California; about 100 of his faithful relocated with him. The membership began to multiply, new congregations were formed, and the headquarters was established in San Francisco.

Behind his public image as a beloved leader espousing interracial harmony, “Father,” as Jones was called, assumed a messiah-like presence in the Peoples Temple. Increasingly, he became the personal object of the members devotion, and he used their numbers and obedience to gain political influence and power. Within the Temple, Jones demanded absolute loyalty, enforced a taxing regimen, and delivered sermons forecasting nuclear holocaust and an apocalyptic destruction of the world, promising his followers that they alone would emerge as survivors. Many of his harangues attacked racism and capitalism, but his most vehement anger focused on the “enemies” of the Peoples Temple — its detractors and especially its defectors. In mid-1977, publication of unfavorable magazine articles, coupled with the impending custody battle over a six-year-old Jones claimed as a “son,” prompted emigration of the bulk of Temple membership to a jungle outpost in Guyana.

In November, 1978, Congressman Leo Ryan responded to charges that the Peoples Temple was holding people against their will at Jonestown. He organized a trip to the South American settlement; a small party of journalists and “Concerned Relatives” of Peoples Temple members accompanied him on his investigation. They were in Jonestown for one evening and part of the following day. They heard most residents praise the settlement, expressing their joy at being there and indicating their desire to stay. Two families, however, slipped messages to Ryan that they wanted to leave with him. After the visit, as Ryan’s party and these defectors tried to board planes to depart, the group was ambushed and fired upon by Temple gunmen — five people, including Ryan, were murdered.

As the shootings were taking place at the jungle airstrip, Jim Jones gathered the community at Jonestown. He informed them that the Congressman’s party would be killed and then initiated the final ritual; the “revolutionary suicide”  that the membership rehearsed on prior occasions. The poison was brought out. It was taken.

Jonestown’s remoteness caused reports of the event to reach the public in stages. First came bulletins announcing the assassination of Congressman Ryan along with several members of his party. Then came rumors of mass-deaths at Jonestown, then confirmations. The initial estimates put the number of dead near 400, bringing the hope that substantial numbers of people had escaped into the jungle. But as the bodies were counted, many smaller victims were discovered under the corpses of larger ones — virtually none of the inhabitants of Jonestown survived. The public was shocked, then incredulous.

Amid the early stories about the tragedy, along with the lurid descriptions and sensational photographs, came some attempts at analysis, Most discussed the charisma of Jim Jones and the power of “cults.” Jones was described as “a character Joseph Conrad might have dreamt up” (Krause, 1978), a “self-appointed messiah” whose “lust for dominion” led hundreds of “fanatic” followers to their demise (Special Report: The Cult of Death, Newsweek, 1978a).

While a description in terms of the personality of the perpetrator and the vulnerability of the victims provides some explanation, it relegates the events to the category of being an aberration, a product of unique forces and dispositions. Assuming such a perspective distances us from the phenomenon. This might be comforting, but I believe that it limits our understanding and is potentially dangerous. My aim in this analysis is not to blunt the emotional impact of a tragedy of this magnitude by subjecting it to academic examination. At the same time, applying social psychological theory and research makes it more conceivable and comprehensible, thus bringing it closer (in kind rather than in degree) to processes each of us encounters. Social psychological concepts can facilitateour understanding: viewed in terms of obedience and compliance. The processes that induced people to join and to believe in the Peoples Temple made use of strategies involved in propaganda and persuasion. In grappling with the most perplexing questions — Why didn’t more people leave the Temple? How could they actually kill their children and themselves? — the psychology of self-justification provides some insight.

Conformity

The character of a church . . . can be seen in its attitude toward its detractors. — Hugh Prather, “Notes to Myself”

At one level, the deaths at Jonestown can be viewed as the product of obedience, of people complying with the orders of a leader and reacting to the threat of force. In the Peoples Temple, whatever Jim Jones commanded, the members did. When he gathered the community at the pavilion and the poison was brought out, the populace was surrounded by armed guards who were trusted lieutenants of Jones. There are reports that some people did not drink voluntarily but had the poison forced down their throats or injected (Winfrey, 1979). While there were isolated acts of resistance and suggestions of opposition to the suicides, excerpts from a tape, recorded as the final ritual was being enacted, reveal that such dissent was quickly dismissed or shouted down:

Jones: I’ve tried my best to give you a good life. In spite of all I’ve tried, a handful of people, with their lies, have made our life impossible. If we can’t live in peace then let’s die in peace. (Applause)… We have been so terribly betrayed … What’s going to happen here in the matter of a few minutes is that one of the people on that plane is going to shoot the pilot — I know that. I didn’t plan it , but I know its going to happen…. So my opinion is that you used to in ancient Greece , and step over quietly, because we are not committing suicide — its a revolutionary act … We can’t go back…

First Woman: I feel like that as there’s life, there’s hope.

Jones: Well, someday everybody dies .

Crowd : That’s right , that’s right!

Jones: What those people gone and done, and what they get through will make our lives worse than hell… But to me, death is not a fearful thing. It’s living that’s cursed… Not worth living like this.

First Woman: But I’m afraid to die.

Jones: I don’t think you are. I don’t think you are.

First Woman: I think there were too few who left for 1,200 people to give them their lives for those people who left… I look at all the babies and I think they deserve to live.

Jones: But don’t they deserve much more? They deserve peace. The best testimony we can give is to leave this goddam world. (Applause)

First Man: Its over, sister… We’ve made a beautiful day. (Applause)

Second Man: If you tell us we have to give our lives now, we’re ready. (Applause) [Baltimore Sun, 1979.]

Above the cries of babies wailing, the tape continues, with Jones insisting upon the need for suicide and urging the people to complete the act:

Jones: Please get some medication. Simple. Its simple There’s no convulsions with it… Don’t be afraid to die. You’ll see people land out here. They’ll torture our people…

Second Woman: There’s nothing to worry about. Everybody keep calmand try to keep your children calm… They’re not crying from pain; its just a little bitter tasting…

Third Woman: This is nothing to cry about. This is something we could all rejoice about. (Applause)

Jones: Please, for Gods sake, lets get on with it… This is a revolutionary suicide. This is not a self-destructive suicide. (Voices praise, “Dad.” Applause)

Third Man: Dad has brought us this far. My vote is to go with Dad…

Jones: We must die with dignity. Hurry, hurry, hurry. We must hurry… Stop this hysterics. Death is a million times more preferable to spending more days in this life… If you knew what was ahead, you’d be glad to be stepping over tonight…

Fourth Woman: It’s been a pleasure walking with all of you in this revolutionary struggle… No other way I would rather go than to give my life for socialism. Communism, and I thank Dad very much.

Jones: Take our life from us… We didn’t commit suicide. We committed an act of revolutionary suicide protesting against the conditions of an inhuman world. [Newsweek, 1978b,1979].

If you hold a gun at someone’s head, you can get that person to do just about anything. As many accounts have attested, by the early 1970s the members of the Peoples Temple lived in constant fear of severe punishment and brutal beatings coupled with public humiliation for committing trivial or even inadvertent offenses. But the power of an authority need not be so explicitly threatening in order to induce compliance with its demands, as demonstrated by social psychological research. In Milgram’s experiments (1963), a surprisingly high proportion of subjects obeyed the instructions of an experimenter to administer what they thought were very strong electric shocks to another person. Nor does the consensus of a group need be so blatantly coercive to induce agreement with its opinion, as Asch’s experiments (1955) on conformity to the incorrect judgments of a majority indicate.

Jim Jones utilized the threat of severe punishment to impose the strict discipline and absolute devotion that he demanded, and he also took measures to eliminate those factors that might encourage resistance or rebellion among his followers. Research showed that the presence of a “disobedient” partner greatly reduced the extent to which most subjects in the Milgram situation (1965) obeyed the instructions to shock the person designated the “learner.” Similarly, by including just one confederate who expressed an opinion different from the majority’s, Asch (1955) showed that the subject would also agree far less, even when the “other dissenters'” judgment was also incorrect and differed from the subject’s. In the Peoples Temple, Jones tolerated no dissent, made sure that members had no allegiance more powerful than to himself, and tried to make the alternative of leaving the Temple an unthinkable option.

Jeanne Mills, who spent six years as high-ranking member before becoming one of the few who left the Peoples Temple, writes: “There was an unwritten but perfectly understood law in the church that was very important: No one is to criticize Father, wife, or his children” (Mills, 1979). Deborah Blakey, another long-time member who managed to defect, testified:

Any disagreement with [Jim Jones’s] dictates came to be regarded as “treason.” … Although I felt terrible about what was happening, I was afraid to say anything because I knew that anyone with a differing opinion gained the wrath of Jones and other members. [Blakey, June 15, 1978.]

Conditions in the Peoples Temple became so oppressive, the discrepancy between Jim Jones’s stated aims and his practices so pronounced, that it is almost inconceivable that members failed to entertain questions about the church. But these doubts were unreinforced. There were no allies to support one’s disobedience of the leader’s commands and no fellow dissenters to encourage the expression of disagreement with the majority. Public disobedience or dissent was quickly punished. Questioning Jones’s word, even in the company of family or friends, was dangerous. Informers and “counselors” were quick to report indiscretions, even by relatives.

The use of informers went further than to stifle dissent; it also diminished the solidarity and loyalty that individuals felt toward their families and friends. While Jones preached that a spirit of brotherhood should pervade his church, he made it clear that each member’s personal dedication should be directed to “Father.” Families were split: First, children were seated away from parents during services; then, many were assigned to another member’s care as they grew up; and ultimately, parents were forced to sign documents surrendering custody rights. “Families are part of the enemy system,” Jones stated, because they hurt one’s total dedication to the “Cause” (Mills, 1979). Thus, a person called before the membership to be punished could expect his or her family to be among the first and most forceful critics (Cahill, 1979).

Besides splitting parent and child, Jones sought to loosen the bonds between wife and husband. He forced spouses into extramarital sexual relations, which were often of a homosexual or humiliating nature, or with Jones himself. Sexual partnerships and activities not under his direction and control were discouraged and publicly ridiculed.

Thus, expressing any doubts or criticism of Jones even to a friend, child, or partner — became risky for the individual. As a consequence, such thoughts were kept to oneself, and with the resulting impression that nobody else shared them. In addition to limiting one’s access to information, this “fallacy of uniqueness” precluded the sharing of support. It is interesting that among the few who successfully defected from the Peoples Temple were couples such as Jeanne and Al Mills, who kept together, shared their doubts, and gave each other support.

Why didn’t more people leave? Once inside the Peoples Temple, getting out was discouraged; defectors were hated. Nothing upset Jim Jones so much; people who left became the targets of his most vitriolic attacks and were blamed for any problems that occurred. One member recalled that after several teen-age members left the Temple, “We hated those eight with such a passion because we knew any day they were going to try bombing us. I mean Jim Jones had us totally convinced of this.” (Winfrey, 1979)

Defectors were threatened: Immediately after she left, Grace Stoen headed for the beach at Lake Tahoe, where she found herself looking over her shoulder, checking to make sure that she hadn’t been tracked down (Kilduff and Tracy, 1977). Jeanne Mills reports that she and her family were followed by men in cars, their home was burglarized, and they were threatened with the use of confessions they had signed while still members. When a friend from the Temple paid a visit, she quickly examined Mills ears — Jim Jones had vowed to have one of them cut off (Mills, 1979). He had made ominous predictions concerning other defectors as well: Indeed, several ex-members suffered puzzling deaths or committed very questionable “suicides” shortly after leaving the Peoples Temple (Reiterman, 1977; Tracy, 1978).

Defecting became quite a risky enterprise, and, for most members, the potential benefits were very uncertain. They had little to hope for outside of the Peoples Temple; what they had, they had committed to the church. Jim Jones had vilified previous defectors as “the enemy” and had instilled the fear that, once outside of the Peoples Temple, members’ stories would not be believed by the “racist, fascist” society, and they would be subjected to torture, concentration camps, and execution. Finally, in Guyana, Jonestown was surrounded by dense jungle, the few trails patrolled by armed security guards (Cahill, 1979). Escape was not a viable option. Resistance was too costly. With no other alternatives apparent, compliance became the most reasonable course of action.

The power that Jim Jones wielded kept the membership of the Peoples Temple in line, and the difficulty of defecting helped to keep them in. But what attracted them to join Jones’s church in the first place?

Persuasion

Nothing is so unbelievable that oratory cannot make itacceptable. — Cicero

Jim Jones was a charismatic figure, adept at oratory. He sought people for his church who would be receptive to his messages and be vulnerable to promises, and he carefully honed his presentation to appeal to each specific audience.

The bulk of the Peoples Temple membership was comprised of a society’s needy and neglected: the urban poor, the black, the elderly and a sprinkling of ex-addicts and ex-convicts (Winfrey, 1979). To attract new members, Jones held public services in various cities. Leaflets would be distributed:

Pastor Jim Jones… Incredible!… Miraculous!…Amazing!. . . The Most Unique Prophetic Healing Service You’ve Ever Witnessed! Behold the Word Made Incarnate In Your Midst!

God Works as tumorous masses are passed in every service… Before your eyes, the crippled walk, the blind see! [Kilduff and Javers,1978.]

Potential members first confronted an almost idyllic scene of blacks and whites living, working, and worshiping together. Guests were greeted and treated most warmly and were invited to share in the group’s meal. As advertised, Jim Jones also gave them miracles. a number of members would recount how Jones had cured them of cancer or other dread diseases; during the service Jones or one of his nurses would reach into the member’s throat and emerge with a vile mass of tissue — the “cancer” that had been passed as the person gagged. Sometimes Jim Jones would make predictions that would occur with uncanny frequency. He also received revelations about members or visitors that nobody but those individuals could know what they had eaten for dinner the night before, for instance, or news about a far-off relative. Occasionally, he performed miracles similar to more well-established religious figures:

There were more people than usual at the Sunday service, and for some reason the church members hadn’t brought enough food to feed everyone. It became apparent that the last fifty people in line weren’t going to get any meat. Jim announced, “Even though there isn’t enough food to feed this multitude, I am blessing the food that we have and multiplying it just as Jesus did in biblical times.”

Sure enough, a few minutes after he made this startling announcement, Eva Pugh came out of the kitchen beaming, carrying two platters filled with fried chicken. A big cheer came from the people assembled in the room, especially from the people who were at the end of the line.

The “blessed chicken” was extraordinarily delicious, and several of the people mentioned that Jim had produced the best-tasting chicken they had ever eaten. [Mills, 1979.]

Those demonstrations were dramatic and impressive; most members were convinced of their authenticity and believed in Jones’s “powers.” They didn’t know that the “cancers” were actually rancid chicken gizzards, that the occurrences Jones “forecast” were staged, or that sending people to sift through a person’s garbage could reveal packages of certain foods or letters of out-of-town relatives to serve as grist for Jones “revelations” (Kilduff and Tracy, 1977; Mills, 1979). Members were motivated to believe in Jones; they appreciated the racial harmony, sense of purpose, and relief from feelings of worthlessness that the Peoples Temple provided them (Winfrey, 1979; Lifton, 1979). Even when suspecting that something was wrong, they learned that is was unwise to voice their doubts:

One of the men, Chuck Beikman… jokingly mentioned to a few people standing near him that he had seen Eva drive up a few moments earlier with buckets from the Kentucky Fried Chicken stand. He smiled as he said, “The person that blessed this chicken was Colonel Sanders.”

During the evening meeting Jim mentioned the fact that Chuck had made fun of his gift. “He lied to some of the members here, telling them that the chicken had come from a local shop,” Jim stormed. “But the Spirit of Justice has prevailed. Because of his lie Chuck is in the men’s room right now, wishing that he was dead. He is vomiting and has diarrhea so bad he cant talk!”

An hour later a pale and shaken Chuck Beikman walked out of the men’s room and up to the front, being supported by one of the guards. Jim asked him, “Do you have anything you’d like to say?”

Chuck looked up weakly and answered, “Jim, I apologize for what I said. Please forgive me.”

As we looked at Chuck, we vowed in our hearts that we would never question any of Jim’s “miracles” at least not out loud. Years later, we learned that Jim had put a mild poison in a piece of cake and given it to Chuck. [Mills, 1979.

Jim Jones skillfully manipulated the impression that his church would convey to newcomers. He carefully managed its public image. He used the letter-writing and political clout of hundreds of members to praise and impress the politicians and press that supported the Peoples Temple, as well as to criticize and intimidate its opponents (Kasindorf, 1978). Most importantly, Jones severely restricted the information that was available to the members. In addition to indoctrinating members into his own belief system through extensive sermons and lectures, he inculcated a distrust of any contradictory messages, labeling them the product of enemies. By destroying the credibility of their sources, he inoculated the membership against being persuaded by outside criticism. Similarly, any contradictory thoughts that might arise within each member were to be discredited. Instead of seeing them as having any basis in reality, members interpreted them as indications of their own shortcomings or lack of faith. Members learned to attribute the apparent discrepancies between Jones’s lofty pronouncements and the rigors of life in the Peoples Temple to their personal inadequacies rather than blaming them on any fault of Jones. As ex-member Neva Sly was quoted: “We always blamed ourselves for things that didn’t seem right” (Winfrey, 1979). A unique and distorting language developed within the church, in which “The Cause” became anything that Jim Jones said (Mills, 1979). It was spoken at Jonestown, where a guard tower was called the “playground.” (Cahill, 1979). Ultimately, through the clever use of oratory, deception, and language, Jones could speak of death as “stepping over,” thereby camouflaging a hopeless act of self-destruction as a noble and brave act of “revolutionary suicide,” and the members accepted his words.

Self-Justification

Both salvation and punishment for man lie in the fact that if he lives wrongly he can befog himself so as not to see the misery ofhis position.
—Tolstoy, “The Kreutzer Sonata”

Analyzing Jonestown in terms of obedience and the power of the situation can help to explain why the people acted as they did. Once the Peoples Temple had moved to Jonestown, there was little the members could do other than follow Jim Jones’s dictates. They were comforted by an authority of absolute power. They were left with few options, being surrounded by armed guards and by the jungle, having given their passports and various documents and confessions to Jones, and believing that conditions in the outside world were even more threatening. The members’ poor diet, heavy workload, lack of sleep, and constant exposure to Jones’s diatribes exacerbated the coerciveness of their predicament; tremendous pressures encouraged them to obey.

By the time of the final ritual, opposition or escape had become almost impossible for most of the members. Yet even then, it is doubtful that many wanted to resist or leave. Most had come tobelieve in Jones — one woman’s body was found with a message scribbled on her arm during the final hours: “Jim Jones is the only one” (Cahill, 1979). They seemed to have accepted the necessity, and even the beauty, of dying — just before the ritual began, a guard approached Charles Garry, one of the Temples hired attorneys, and exclaimed, “Its a great moment… we all die” (Lifton, 1979). A survivor of Jonestown, who happened to be away at the dentist, was interviewed a year following the deaths:

If I had been there, I would have been the first one to stand in that line and take that poison and I would have been proud to take it. The thing I’m sad about is this: that I missed the ending. [Gallagher, 1979.]

It is the aspect of Jonestown that is perhaps the most troubling. To the end, and even beyond, the vast majority of the Peoples Temple members believed in Jim Jones. External forces, in the form of power or persuasion, can exact compliance. But one must examine a different set of processes to account for the members internalizing those beliefs.

Although Jones’s statements were often inconsistent and his methods cruel, most members maintained their faith in his leadership. Once they were isolated at Jonestown, there was little opportunity or motivation to think otherwise — resistance or escape was out of the question. In such a situation, the individual is motivated to rationalize his or her predicament; a person confronted with the inevitable tends to regard it more positively. For example, social psychological research has shown that when children believe that they will be served more of a vegetable they dislike, they will convince themselves that it is not so noxious (Brehm, 1959), and when a person thinks that she will be interacting with someone, she tends to judge a description of that individual more favorably (Darley and Berscheid, 1967).

A member’s involvement in the Temple did not begin at Jonestown — it started much earlier, closer to home, and less dramatically. At first, the potential member would attend meetings voluntarily and might put in a few hours each week working for the church. Though the established members would urge the recruit to join, he or she felt free to choose whether to stay or leave. Upon deciding to join, a member expended more effort and became more committed to the Peoples Temple. In small increments, Jones increased the demands made on the member, and only after a long sequence did he escalate the oppressiveness of his rule and the desperation of his message. Little by little, the individual’s alternatives became more limited. Step by step, the person was motivated to rationalize his or her commitment and to justify his or her behavior.

Jeanne Mills, who managed to defect two years before the Temple relocated in Guyana, begins her account, Six Years with God(1979), by writing: “Every time I tell someone about the six years we spent as members of the Peoples Temple, I am faced with an unanswerable question: If the church was so bad, why did you and your family stay in for so long?” Several classic studies from social psychological research investigating processes of self-justification and the theory of cognitive dissonance (see Aronson, 1980, chapter 4; Aronson, 1969) can point to explanations for such seemingly irrational behavior.

According to dissonance theory, when a person commits an act or holds a cognition that is psychologically inconsistent with his or her self-concept, the inconsistency arouses an unpleasant state of tension. The individual tries to reduce this “dissonance,” usually by altering his or her attitudes to bring them more into line with the previously discrepant action or belief. A number of occurrences in the Peoples Temple can be illuminated by viewing them in light of this process. The horrifying events of Jonestown were not due merely to the threat of force, nor did they erupt instantaneously. That is, it was not the case that something “snapped” in peoples’ minds, suddenly causing them to behave in bizarre ways. Rather, as the theory of cognitive dissonance spells out, people seek to justify their choices and commitments.

Just as a towering waterfall can begin as a trickle, so too can the impetus for doing extreme or calamitous actions be provided by the consequences of agreeing to do seemingly trivial ones. In the Peoples Temple, the process started with the effects of undergoing a severe initiation to join the church, was reinforced by the tendency to justify ones commitments, and was strengthened by the need to rationalize one’s behavior.

Consider the prospective members initial visit to the Peoples Temple, for example. When a person undergoes a severe initiation in order to gain entrance into a group, he or she is apt to judge that group as being more attractive, in order to justify expending the effort or enduring the pain. Aronson and Mills (1959) demonstrated that students who suffered a greater embarrassment as a prerequisite for being allowed to participate in a discussion group rated its conversation (which actually was quite boring) to be significantly more interesting than did those students who experienced little or no embarrassment in order to be admitted. Not only is there a tendency to justify undergoing the experience by raising one’s estimation of the goal — in some circumstances. Choosing to experience a hardship can go so far as to affect a person’s perception of the discomfort or pain he or she felt. Zimbardo (1969) and his colleagues showed that when subjects volunteered for a procedure that involved their being given electric shocks, those thinking that they had more choice in the matter reported feeling less pain from the shocks. More specifically, those who experienced greater dissonance, having little external justification to account for their choosing to endure the pain, described it as being less intense. This extended beyond their impressions and verbal reports; their performance on a task was hindered less, and they even recorded somewhat lower readings on a physiological instrument measuring galvanic skin responses. Thus the dissonance-reducing process can be double-edged: Under proper guidance, a person who voluntarily experiences a severe initiation not only comes to regard its ends more positively, but may also begin to see the means as less aversive: “We begin to appreciate the long meetings, because we were told that spiritual growth comes from self-sacrifice.” (Mills, 1979)

Once involved, a member found ever-increasing portions of his or her time and energy devoted to the Peoples Temple. The services and meetings occupied weekends and several evenings each week. Working on Temple projects and writing the required letters to politicians and the press took much of one’s “spare” time. Expected monetary contributions changed from “voluntary” donations (though they were recorded) to the required contribution of a quarter of one’s income. Eventually, a member was supposed to sign over all personal property, savings, social security checks, and the like to the Peoples Temple. Before entering the meeting room for each service, a member stopped at a table and wrote self-incriminating letters or signed blank documents that were turned over to the church. If anyone objected, the refusal was interpreted as denoting a “lack of faith” in Jones. Finally, members were asked to live at Temple facilities to save money and to be able to work more efficiently, and many of their children were raised under the care of other families. Acceding to each new demand had two repercussions: In practical terms, it enmeshed the person further into the Peoples Temple web and made leaving more difficult; on an attitudinal level, it set the aforementioned processes of self-justification into motion. As Mills (1979) describes:

We had to face painful reality. Our life savings were gone. Jim had demanded that we sell the life insurance policy and turn the equity over to the church, so that was gone. Our property had all been taken from us. Our dream of going to an overseas mission was gone. We thought that we had alienated our parents when we told them we were leaving the country. Even the children whom we had left in the care of Carol and Bill were openly hostile toward us. Jim had accomplished all this in such a short time! All we had left now was Jim and the Cause, so we decided to buckle under and give our energies to these two.

Ultimately, Jim Jones and the Cause would require the members to give their lives.

What could cause people to kill their children and themselves? From a detached perspective, the image seems unbelievable. In fact, at first glance, so does the idea of so many individuals committing so much of their time, giving all of their money, and even sacrificing the control of their children to the Peoples Temple. Jones took advantage of rationalization processes that allow people to justify their commitments by raising their estimations of the goal and minimizing its costs. Much as he gradually increased his demands, Jones carefully orchestrated the members’ exposure to the concept of a “final ritual.” He utilized the leverage provided by their previous commitments to push them closer to its enactment. Gaining a “foot in the door” by getting a person to agree to a moderate request makes it more probable that he or she will agree to do a much larger deed later, as social psychologists — and salespeople — have found (Freedman and Fraser, 1966). Doing the initial task causes something that might have seemed unreasonable at first appear less extreme in comparison, and it also motivates a person to make his or her behavior appear more consistent by consenting to the larger requests as well.

After indoctrinating the members with the workings of the Peoples Temple itself, Jones began to focus on broader and more basic attitudes. He started by undermining the members’ belief that death was to be fought and feared and set the stage by introducing the possibility of a cataclysmic ending for the church. As several accounts corroborate (see Mills, 1979; Lifton, 1979; Cahill, 1979), Jones directed several “fake” suicide drills, first with the elite Planning Commission of the Peoples Temple and later with the general membership. He would give them wine and announce that it had been poisoned and that they would soon die. These became tests of faith, of the members’ willingness to follow Jones even to death. Jones would ask people if they were ready to die and on occasion would have the membership “decide” its own fate by voting whether to carry out his wishes. An ex-member recounted that one time, after a while

Jones smiled and said, “Well, it was a good lesson. I see you’re not dead.” He made it sound like we needed the 30 minutes to do very strong, introspective type of thinking. We all felt strongly dedicated, proud of ourselves… [Jones] taught that it was a privilege to die for what you believe in, which is exactly what I would have been doing. [Winfrey, 1979]

After the Temple moved to Jonestown, the “White Nights,” as the suicide drills were called, occurred repeatedly. An exercise that appears crazy to the observer was a regular, justifiable occurrence for the Peoples Temple participant. The reader might ask whether this caused the members to think that the actual suicides were merely another practice, but there were many indications that they knew that the poison was truly deadly on that final occasion. The Ryan visit had been climatic, there were several new defectors, the cooks — who had been excused from the prior drills in order to prepare the upcoming meal — were included, Jones had been growing increasingly angry, desperate, and unpredictable, and, finally, everyone could see the first babies die. The membership was manipulated, but they were not unaware that this time the ritual was for real.

A dramatic example of the impact of self-justification concerns the physical punishment that was meted out in the Peoples Temple. As discussed earlier, the threat of being beaten or humiliated forced the member to comply with Jones’s orders: A person will obey as long as he or she is being threatened and supervised. To affect a person’s attitudes, however, a mild threat has been demonstrated to be more effective than a severe threat (Aronson and Carlsmith, 1963) and its influence has been shown to be far longer lasting (Freedman, 1965). Under a mild threat, the individual has more difficulty attributing his or her behavior to such a minor external restraint, forcing the person to alter his or her attitudes in order to justify the action. Severe threats elicit compliance, but, imposed from the outside, they usually fail to cause the behavior to be internalized. Quite a different dynamic ensues when it is not so clear that the action is being imposed upon the person. When an individual feels that he or she played an active role in carrying out an action that hurts someone, there comes a motivation to justify one’s part in the cruelty by rationalizing it as necessary or by derogating the victim by thinking that the punishment was deserved (Davis and Jones, 1960).

Let’s step back for a moment. The processes going on at Jonestown obviously were not as simple as those in a well-controlled laboratory experiment; several themes were going on simultaneously. For example, Jim Jones had the power to impose any punishments that he wished in the Peoples Temple, and, especially towards the end, brutality and terror at Jonestown were rampant. But Jones carefully controlled how the punishments were carried out. He often called upon the members themselves to agree to the imposition of beatings. They were instructed to testify against fellow members, bigger members told to beat up smaller ones, wives or lovers forced to sexually humiliate their partners, and parents asked to consent to and assist in the beatings of their children (Mills, 1979; Kilduff and Javers, 1978). The punishments grew more and more sadistic, the beatings so severe as to knock the victim unconscious and cause bruises that lasted for weeks. As Donald Lunde, a psychiatrist who has investigated acts of extreme violence, explains:

Once you’ve done something that major, its very hard to admit even to yourself that you’ve made a mistake, and subconsciously you will go to great lengths to rationalize what you did. Its very tricky defense mechanism exploited to the hilt by the charismatic leader.[Newsweek, 1978a.]

A more personal account of the impact of this process is provided by Jeanne Mills. At one meeting, she and her husband were forced to consent to the beating of their daughter as punishment for a very minor transgression. She relates the effect this had on her daughter, the victim, as well as on herself, one of the perpetrators:

As we drove home, everyone in the car was silent. We were all afraid that our words would be considered treasonous. The only sounds came from Linda, sobbing quietly in the back seat. When we got into our house, Al and I sat down to talk with Linda. She was in too much pain to sit. She stood quietly while we talked with her. “How do you feel about what happened tonight?” Al asked her.

“Father was right to have me whipped” Linda answered. “I’ve been so rebellious lately, and I’ve done a lot of things that were wrong… I’m sure Father knew about those things, and that’s why he had me hit so many times.

As we kissed our daughter good night, our heads were spinning. It was hard to think clearly when things were so confusing. Linda had been the victim, and yet we were the only people angry about it. She should have been hostile and angry. Instead, she said that Jim had actually helped her. We knew Jim had done a cruel thing, and yet everyone acted as if he were doing a loving thing in whipping our disobedient child. Unlike a cruel person hurting a child, Jim had seemed calm, almost loving, as he observed the beating and counted off the whacks. Our minds were not able to comprehend the atrocity of the situation because none of the feedback we were receiving was accurate. [Mills, 1979.]

The feedback one received from the outside was limited, and the feedback from inside the Temple member was distorted. By justifying the previous actions and commitments, the groundwork for accepting the ultimate commitment was established.

Conclusion

Only months after we defected from Temple did we realize the full extent of the cocoon in which we lived. And only then we did understand the fraud, sadism, and emotional blackmail of the master manipulator. — Jeanne Mills, “Six Years with God”

Immediately following the Jonestown tragedy, there came a proliferation of articles about “cults” and calls for their investigation and control. From Sienna to Transcendental Meditation, groups and practices were examined by the press, which had a difficult time determining what constituted a “cult” or differentiating between those might be safe and beneficial and those that could be dangerous. The Peoples Temple and the events at Jonestown make such a definition all the more problematic. A few hours before his murder, Congressman Ryan addressed the membership: “I can tell you right now that by the few conversations I’ve had with some of the folks… there are some people who believe this is the best thing that ever happened in their whole lives” (Krause, 1978). The acquiescence of so many and the letters they left behind indicate that this feeling was widely shared — or at least expressed — by the members.

Many “untraditional” — to mainstream American culture — groups or practices, such as Eastern religions or meditation techniques, have proven valuable for the people who experience them but may be seen as very strange and frightening to others. How can people determine whether they are being exposed to a potentially useful alternative way of living their lives or if they are being drawn to a dangerous one?

The distinction is a difficult one. Three questions suggested by the previous analysis, however, can provide important clues: Are alternatives being provided or taken away? Is one’s access to new and different information being broadened or denied? Finally, does the individual assume personal responsibility and control or is it usurped by the group or by its leader?

The Peoples Temple attracted many of its members because it provided them an alternative way of viewing their lives; it gave many people who were downtrodden a sense of purpose, and even transcendence. But it did so at a cost, forcing them to disown their former friendships and beliefs and teaching them to fear anything outside of the Temple as “the enemy.” Following Jones became the only alternative.

Indeed, most of the members grew increasingly unaware of the possibility of any other course. Within the Peoples Temple, and especially at Jonestown, Jim Jones controlled the information to which members would be exposed. He effectively stifled any dissent that might arise within the church and instilled a distrust in each member for contradictory messages from outside. After all, what credibility could be carried by information supplied by “the enemy” that was out to destroy the Peoples Temple with “lies?”

Seeing no alternatives and having no information, a member’s capacity for dissent or resistance was minimized. Moreover, for most members, part of the Temples attraction resulted from their willingness to relinquish much of the responsibility and control over their lives. These were primarily the poor, the minorities, the elderly, and the unsuccessful — they were happy to exchange personal autonomy (with its implicit assumption of personal responsibility for their plights) for security, brotherhood, the illusion of miracles, and the promise of salvation. Stanley Cath, a psychiatrist who has studied the conversion techniques used by cults, generalizes: “Converts have to believe only what they are told. They don’t have to think, and this relieves tremendous tensions” (Newsweek, 1978a). Even Jeanne Mills, one of the better-educated Temple members, commented:

I was amazed at how little disagreement there was between the members of this church. Before we joined the church, Al and I couldn’t even agree on whom to vote for in a presidential election. Now that we all belonged to a group, family arguments were becoming a thing of the past. There was never a question of who was right, because Jim was always right. When our large household met to discuss family problems, we didn’t ask for opinions. Instead, we put the question to the children, “What would Jim do?” It took the difficulty out of life. There was a type of “manifest destiny” which said the Cause was right and would succeed. Jim was right and those who agreed with him were right. If you disagreed with Jim, you were wrong. It was as simple as that. [Mills, 1979.]

Though it is unlikely that he had any formal exposure to the social psychological literature, Jim Jones utilized several very powerful and effective techniques for controlling peoples behavior and altering their attitudes. Some analyses have compared his tactics to those involved in “brainwashing,” for both include the control of communication, the manipulation of guilt, and dispensing power over peoples’ existence (Lifton, 1979), as well as isolation, an exacting regimen, physical pressure, and the use of confessions (Cahill,1979). But using the term brainwashing makes the process sound too esoteric and unusual. There were some unique and scary elements in Jones’s personality — paranoia, delusions of grandeur, sadism, and a preoccupation with suicide. Whatever his personal motivation, however, having formulated his plans and fantasies, he took advantage of well-established social psychological tactics to carry them out. The decision to have a community destroy itself was crazy, but those who performed the deed were “normal” people who were subjected to a tremendously impactful situation, the victims of powerful internal forces as well as external pressures.

Postscript

Within a few weeks of the deaths at Jonestown, the bodies had been transported back to the United States, the remnants of the Peoples Temple membership were said to have disbanded, and the spate of stories and books about the suicide/murders had begun to lose the public’s attention. Three months afterwards, Michael Prokes, who had escaped from Jonestown because he was assigned to carry away a box of Peoples Temple funds, called a press conference in a California motel room. After claiming that Jones had been misunderstood and demanding the release of a tape recording of the final minutes [quoted earlier], he stepped into the bathroom and shot himself in the head. He left behind a note, saying that if his death inspired another book about Jonestown, it was worthwhile (Newsweek,1979).

Postscript

Jeanne and Al Mills were among the most vocal of the Peoples Temples critics following their defection, and they topped an alleged “death list” of its enemies. Even after Jonestown, the Mills’s had repeatedly expressed fear for their lives. Well over a year after the Peoples Temple deaths, they and their daughter were murdered in their Berkeley home. Their teen-aged son, himself an ex-Peoples Temple member, has testified that he was in another part of the large house at the time. At this writing, no suspect has been charged. There are indications that the Mills’s knew their killer — there were no signs of forced entry, and they were shot at close range. Jeanne Mills had been quoted as saying, “Its going to happen. If not today, then tomorrow.” On the final tape of Jonestown, Jim Jones had blamed Jeanne Mills by name, and had promised that his followers in San Francisco “will not take our death in vain” (Newsweek,1980).

Tagged , , , , ,

Demented Pastor

Jones plotted cyanide deaths years before Jonestown

By Jim Polk CNN Senior Producer, CNN, November 12, 2008

One-third of the dead at Jonestown were children. Only 33 of the nearly 1,000 followers survived.

Cyanide was being bought and shipped to the Rev. Jim Jones’ jungle compound in South America for at least two years before 909 Americans died there at the command of their cult leader, CNN has learned.

Sources in Guyana said the Jonestown camp began obtaining shipments of cyanide — about a quarter to a half-pound of the deadly poison each month — as early as 1976, well before most of Jones’ followers made the move there.

CNN’s Soledad O’Brien tells the story of the last hours of Jonestown — and the few who did survive out of desperation and daring — as CNN Presents “Escape from Jonestown.”

Jones led his followers to their death after his gunmen killed a visiting congressman, Rep. Leo Ryan, and four others, including an NBC News correspondent and his cameraman, on November 18, 1978.

Jones told the members of his Peoples Temple church that the Guyanese Army would invade their settlement after the murders. He demanded that parents kill their children first, then take their own lives, rather than face the authorities because of what Jones had done.

Of the 909 who died, 303 were children — from teens to toddlers. Many were killed by Jones’ loyalists, who used syringes to squirt cyanide down their throats.

CNN was told Jones obtained a jeweler’s license to buy cyanide. The chemical can be used to clean gold. But there was no jeweler’s operation in Jonestown.

Six months before Ryan arrived on a one-man investigative mission, the settlement’s doctor wrote in a memo to Jones:

“Cyanide is one of the most rapidly acting poisons. … I would like to give about two grams to a large pig to see how effective our batch is.”

The purchases are “strong evidence that the Rev. Jim Jones had been plotting the death of his followers long before that fateful day,” O’Brien reports.

Ryan, the only U.S. representative assassinated in office, was shot at a nearby airstrip as he tried to leave with 15 church members who told him Jones was holding people captive in the remote jungle encampment.

“That was literally a jungle prison,” said Gerald Parks, whose wife, Patricia, was shot to death in the airport attack. Four other members of his family survived, including two young daughters who were lost in the jungle for three days after running away from the airstrip to hide from the killers.

“It was a dictatorship,” said Vernon Gosney, who was badly wounded in the airport shootings. “It was supposed to be socialism, but it really was fascism.”

Tagged , , , ,

Jonestown Massacre

The Black Hole of Guyana

The Untold Story of the Jonestown Massacre

by John Judge (1985)

Somewhere in the concrete canyons of New York City a recently formed rock group is using the name Jim Jones and the Suicides. Irreverent and disarming, the name reflects the new trend in punk rock, to take social issues head on. Cynicism about the Jonestown deaths and its social parallels abound in the lyrics of today’s music. The messages are clear because we all know the story.

In fact, people today recognize the name “Jonestown” more than any other event, a full 98% of the population.1 The television and printed media were filled with the news for more than a year, even though the tale read like something from the National Enquirer tabloid. But despite all the coverage, the reality of Jonestown and the reasons behind the bizarre events remain a mystery. The details have faded from memory for most of us since November 18, 1978, but not the outlines. Think back a moment and you’ll remember. 

You Know the Official Version

A fanatic religious leader in California led a multiracial community into the jungles of remote Guyana to establish a socialist utopia. The People’s Temple, his church, was in the heart of San Francisco and drew poor people, social activists, Blacks and Hispanics, young and old. The message was racial harmony and justice, and criticism of the hypocrisy of the world around his followers.2

The Temple rose in a vacuum of leadership at the end of an era. The political confrontations of the 60s were almost over, and religious cults and “personal transformation” were on the rise. Those who had preached a similar message on the political soap box were gone, burnt out, discredited, or dead. The counter-culture had apparently degenerated into drugs and violence. Charlie Manson was the only visible image of the period. Suddenly, religion seemed to offer a last hope.3

Even before they left for the Jonestown site, the People’s Temple members were subjects of local scandal in the news.4 Jim Jones claimed these exposés were attacks on their newly-found religion, and used them as an excuse to move most of the members to Guyana.5 But disturbing reports continued to surround Jones, and soon came to the attention of congressional members like Leo Ryan. Stories of beatings, kidnapping, sexual abuse and mysterious deaths leaked out in the press.6 Ryan decided to go to Guyana and investigate the situation for himself. The nightmare began.7

Isolated on the tiny airstrip at Port Kaituma, Ryan and several reporters in his group were murdered. Then came the almost unbelievable “White Night,” a mass suicide pact of the Jonestown camp. A community made up mostly of Blacks and women drank cyanide from paper cups of Kool-Aid, adults and children alike died and fell around the main pavilion. Jones himself was shot in the head, an apparent suicide. For days, the body count mounted, from 400 to nearly 1,000. The bodies were flown to the United States and later cremated or buried in mass graves.8

Temple member Larry Layton is still facing charges of conspiracy in Ryan’s murder. Ryan was recently awarded a posthumous Medal of Honor, and was the first Congress member to die in the line of duty.9

Pete Hammill called the corpses “all the loose change of the sixties.”10 The effect was electric. Any alternative to the current system was seen as futile, if not deadly. Protest only led to police riots and political assassination. Alternative life styles and drugs led to “creepy-crawly” communes and violent murders.11 And religious experiments led to cults and suicide. Social utopias were dreams that turned into nightmares. The television urged us to go back to “The Happy Days” of the apolitical 50s. The message was, get a job, and go back to church.12 The unyielding nuclear threat generated only nihilism and hopelessness. There was no answer but death, no exit from the grisly future. The new ethic was personal success, aerobics, material consumption, a return to “American values,” and the “moral majority” white Christian world. The official message was clear.

But Just Suppose It Didn’t Happen That Way…

The headlines the day of the massacre read: “Cult Dies in South American Jungle: 400 Die in Mass Suicide, 700 Flee into Jungle.”13 By all accounts in the press, as well as People’s Temple statements there were at least 1,100 people at Jonestown.14 There were 809 adult passports found there, and reports of 300 children (276 found among the dead, and 210 never identified). The headline figures from the first day add to the same number: 1,100.15 The original body count done by the Guyanese was 408, and this figure was initially agreed to by U.S. Army authorities on site.16 However, over the next few days, the total of reported dead began to rise quickly. The Army made a series of misleading and openly false statements about the discrepancy. The new total, which was the official final count, was given almost a week later by American authorities as 913.17 A total of 16 survivors were reported to have returned to the U.S.18 Where were the others?

At their first press conference, the Americans claimed that the Guyanese “could not count.” These local people had carried out the gruesome job of counting the bodies, and later assisted American troops in the process of poking holes in the flesh lest they explode from the gasses of decay.19 Then the Americans proposed another theory — they had missed seeing a pile of bodies at the back of the pavilion. The structure was the size of a small house, and they had been at the scene for days. Finally, we were given the official reason for the discrepancy — bodies had fallen on top of other bodies, adults covering children.20

It was a simple, if morbid, arithmetic that led to the first suspicions. The 408 bodies discovered at first count would have to be able to cover 505 bodies for a total of 913. In addition, those who first worked on the bodies would have been unlikely to miss bodies lying beneath each other since each body had to be punctured. Eighty-two of the bodies first found were those of children, reducing the number that could have been hidden below others.21 A search of nearly 150 photographs, aerial and close-up, fails to show even one body lying under another, much less 500.22

It seemed the first reports were true, 400 had died, and 700 had fled to the jungle. The American authorities claimed to have searched for people who had escaped, but found no evidence of any in the surrounding area.23 At least a hundred Guyanese troops were among the first to arrive, and they were ordered to search the jungle for survivors.24 In the area, at the same time, British Black Watch troops were on “training exercises,” with nearly 600 of their best-trained commandos. Soon, American Green Berets were on site as well.25 The presence of these soldiers, specially trained in covert killing operations, may explain the increasing numbers of bodies that appeared.

Most of the photographs show the bodies in neat rows, face down. There are few exceptions. Close shots indicate drag marks, as though the bodies were positioned by someone after death.26 Is it possible that the 700 who fled were rounded up by these troops, brought back to Jonestown and added to the body count?27

If so, the bodies would indicate the cause of death. A new word was coined by the media, “suicide-murder.” But which was it?28 Autopsies and forensic science are a developing art. The detectives of death use a variety of scientific methods and clues to determine how people die, when they expire, and the specific cause of death. Dr. Mootoo, the top Guyanese pathologist, was at Jonestown within hours after the massacre. Refusing the assistance of U.S. pathologists, he accompanied the teams that counted the dead, examined the bodies, and worked to identify the deceased. While the American press screamed about the “Kool-Aid Suicides,” Dr. Mootoo was reaching a much different opinion.29]

There are certain signs that show the types of poisons that lead to the end of life. Cyanide blocks the messages from the brain to the muscles by changing body chemistry in the central nervous system. Even the “involuntary” functions like breathing and heartbeat get mixed neural signals. It is a painful death, breath coming in spurts. The other muscles spasm, limbs twist and contort. The facial muscles draw back into a deadly grin, called “cyanide rictus.”30 All these telling signs were absent in the Jonestown dead. Limbs were limp and relaxed, and the few visible faces showed no sign of distortion.31

Instead, Dr. Mootoo found fresh needle marks at the back of the left shoulder blades of 80-90% of the victims.32 Others had been shot or strangled. One survivor reported that those who resisted were forced by armed guards.33 The gun that reportedly shot Jim Jones was lying nearly 200 feet from his body, not a likely suicide weapon.34 As Chief Medical Examiner, Mootoo’s testimony to the Guyanese grand jury investigating Jonestown led to their conclusion that all but three of the people were murdered by “persons unknown.” Only two had committed suicide they said.35 Several pictures show the gun-shot wounds on the bodies as well.36 The U.S. Army spokesman, Lt. Col. Schuler, said, “No autopsies are needed. The cause of death is not an issue here.” The forensic doctors who later did autopsies at Dover, Delaware, were never made aware of Dr. Mootoo’s findings.37

There are other indications that the Guyanese government participated with American authorities in a cover-up of the real story, despite their own findings. One good example was Guyanese Police Chief Lloyd Barker, who interfered with investigations, helped “recover” 2.5 million for the Guyanese government, and was often the first to officially announce the cover stories relating to suicide, body counts and survivors.38 Among the first to the scene were the wife of Guyanese Prime Minister Forbes Burnham and his Deputy Prime Minister, Ptolemy Reid. They returned from the massacre site with nearly $1 million in cash, gold and jewelry taken from the buildings and from the dead. Inexplicably, one of Burnham’s political party secretaries had visited the site of the massacre only hours before it occurred.39 When Shirley Field Ridley, Guyanese Minister of Information, announced the change in the body count to the shocked Guyanese parliament, she refused to answer further questions. Other representatives began to point a finger of shame at Ridley and the Burnham government, and the local press dubbed the scandal “Templegate.” All accused them of taking a ghoulish payoff.40

Perhaps more significantly, the Americans brought in 16 huge C-131 cargo planes, but claimed they could only carry 36 caskets in each one. These aircraft can carry tanks, trucks, troops and ammunition all in one load.41 At the scene, bodies were stripped of identification, including the medical wrist tags visible in many early photos.42 Dust-off operations during Vietnam clearly demonstrated that the military is capable of moving hundreds of bodies in a short period.43 Instead, they took nearly a week to bring back the Jonestown dead, bringing in the majority at the end of the period.44 The corpses, rotting in the heat, made autopsy impossible.45 At one point, the remains of 183 people arrived in 82 caskets. Although the Guyanese had identified 174 bodies at the site, only 17 (later 46) were tentatively identified at the massive military mortuary in Dover, Delaware.46

Isolated there, hundreds of miles from their families who might have visited the bodies at a similar mortuary in Oakland that was used during Vietnam, many of the dead were eventually cremated.47 Press was excluded, and even family members had difficulty getting access to the remains.48 Officials in New Jersey began to complain that state coroners were excluded, and that the military coroners appointed were illegally performing cremations.49 One of the top forensic body identification experts, who later was brought in to work on the Iranian raid casualties, was denied repeated requests to assist.50 In December, the President of the National Association of Medical Examiners complained in an open letter to the U.S. military that they “badly botched” procedures, and that a simple fluid autopsy was never performed at the point of discovery. Decomposition, embalming and cremation made further forensic work impossible.51 The unorthodox method of identification attempted, to remove the skin from the finger tip and slip it over a gloved finger, would not have stood up in court.52

The long delay made it impossible to reconstruct the event. As noted, these military doctors were unaware of Dr. Mootoo’s conclusions. Several civilian pathology experts said they “shuddered at the ineptness” of the military, and that their autopsy method was “doing it backwards.” But in official statements, the U.S. attempted to discredit the Guyanese grand jury findings, saying they had uncovered “few facts.”53

Guyanese troops, and police who had arrived with American Embassy official Richard Dwyer, also failed to defend Congressman Leo Ryan and others who came to Guyana with him when they were shot down in cold blood at the Port Kaituma airstrip, even though the troops were nearby with machine guns at the ready.54 Although Temple member Larry Layton has been charged with the murders of Congressman Ryan, Temple defector Patricia Parks, and press reporters Greg Robinson, Don Harris and Bob Brown, he was not in a position to shoot them.55 Blocked from boarding Ryan’s twin engine Otter, he had entered another plane nearby. Once inside, he pulled out a gun and wounded two Temple followers, before being disarmed.56 The others were clearly killed by armed men who descended from a tractor trailer at the scene, after opening fire. Witnesses described them as “zombies,” walking mechanically, without emotion, and “looking through you, not at you” as they murdered.57 Only certain people were killed, and the selection was clearly planned. Certain wounded people, like Ryan’s aide Jackie Speiers, were not harmed further, but the killers made sure that Ryan and the newsmen were dead. In some cases they shot people, already wounded, directly in the head.58 These gunmen were never finally identified, and may have been under Layton’s command. They may not have been among the Jonestown dead.59

At the Jonestown site, survivors described a special group of Jones’ followers who were allowed to carry weapons and money, and to come and go from the camp. These people were all white, mostly males.60 They ate better and worked less than the others, and they served as an armed guard to enforce discipline, control labor and restrict movement.61 Among them were Jones’ top lieutenants, including George Phillip Blakey. Blakey and others regularly visited Georgetown, Guyana and made trips in their sea-going boat, the Cudjoe. He was privileged to be aboard the boat when the murders occurred.62 This special armed guard survived the massacre. Many were trained and programmed killers, like the “zombies” who attacked Ryan. Some were used as mercenaries in Africa, and elsewhere.63 The dead were 90% women, and 80% Blacks.64 It is unlikely that men armed with guns and modern crossbows would give up control and willingly be injected with poisons. It is much more likely that they forced nearly 400 people to die by injection, and then assisted in the murder of 500 more who attempted to escape. One survivor clearly heard people cheering 45 minutes after the massacre. Despite government claims, they are not accounted for, nor is their location known.65

Back in California, People’s Temple members openly admitted that they feared they were targeted by a “hit squad,” and the Temple was surrounded for some time by local police forces.66 During that period, two members of the elite guard from Jonestown returned and were allowed into the Temple by police.67 The survivors who rode to Port Kaituma with Leo Ryan complained when Larry Layton boarded the truck, “He’s not one of us.”68 Rumors also persisted that a “death list” of U.S. officials existed, and some survivors verified in testimony to the San Francisco grand jury.69 A congressional aide was quoted in the AP wires on May 19, 1979, “There are 120 white, brainwashed assassins out from Jonestown awaiting the trigger word to pick up their hit.”70

Other survivors included Mark Lane and Charles Garry, lawyers for People’s Temple who managed to escape the massacre somehow.71In addition to the 16 who officially returned with the Ryan party, others managed to reach Georgetown and come back home.72 However, there have been continuing suspicious murders of those people here. Jeannie and Al Mills, who intended to write a book about Jones, were murdered at home, bound and shot.73 Some evidence indicates a connection between the Jonestown operation and the murders of Mayor Moscone and Harvey Milk by police agent Dan White.74 Another Jonestown survivor was shot near his home in Detroit by unidentified killers.75 Yet another was involved in a mass murder of school children in Los Angeles.76 Anyone who survived such massive slaughter must be somewhat suspect. The fact that the press never even spoke about nearly 200 survivors raises serious doubts.

Who Was Jim Jones?

In order to understand the strange events surrounding Jonestown, we must begin with a history of the people involved. The official story of a religious fanatic and his idealist followers doesn’t make sense in light of the evidence of murders, armed killers and autopsy cover-ups. If it happened the way we were told, there should be no reason to try to hide the facts from the public, and full investigation into the deaths at Jonestown, and the murder of Leo Ryan would have been welcomed. What did happen is something else again.

Jim Jones grew up in Lynn, in southern Indiana. His father was an active member of the local Ku Klux Klan that infest that area.77 His friends found him a little strange, and he was interested in preaching the Bible and religious rituals.78 Perhaps more important was his boyhood friendship with Dan Mitrione, confirmed by local residents.79 In the early 50s, Jones set out to be a religious minister, and was ordained at one point by a Christian denomination in Indianapolis.80 It was during this period that he met and married his lifelong mate, Marceline.81 He also had a small business selling monkeys, purchased from the research department at Indiana State University in Bloomington.82

A Bible-thumper and faith healer, Jones put on revivalist tent shows in the area, and worked close to Richmond, Indiana. Mitrione, his friend, worked as chief of police there, and kept him from being arrested or run out of town.83 According to those close to him, he used wet chicken livers as evidence of “cancers” he was removing by “divine powers.”84 His landlady called him “a gangster who used a Bible instead of a gun.”85 His church followers included Charles Beikman, a Green Beret who was to stay with him to the end.86 Beikman was later charged with the murders of several Temple members in Georgetown, following the massacre.87

Dan Mitrione, Jones’ friend, moved on to the CIA-financed International Police Academy, where police were trained in counter-insurgency and torture techniques from around the world.88 Jones, a poor, itinerant preacher, suddenly had money in 1961 for a trip to “minister” in Brazil, and he took his family with him.89 By this time, he had “adopted” Beikman, and eight children, both Black and white.90 His neighbors in Brazil distrusted him. He told them he worked with U.S. Navy Intelligence. His transportation and groceries were being provided by the U.S. Embassy as was the large house he lived in.91 His son, Stephan, commented that he made regular trips to Belo Horizonte, site of the CIA headquarters in Brazil92 An American police advisor, working closely with the CIA at that point, Dan Mitrione was there as well.93 Mitrione had risen in the ranks quickly, and was busy training foreign police in torture and assassination methods. He was later kidnapped by Tupermaro guerillas in Uruguay, interrogated and murdered.94 Costa Gravas made a film about his death titledState of Siege.95 Jones returned to the United States in 1963, with $10,000 in his pocket.96 Recent articles indicate that Catholic clergy are complaining about CIA funding of other denominations for “ministry” in Brazil; perhaps Jones was an early example.97

With his new wealth, Jones was able to travel to California and establish the first People’s Temple in Ukiah, California, in 1965. Guarded by dogs, electric fences and guard towers, he set up Happy Havens Rest Home.98 Despite a lack of trained personnel, or proper licensing, Jones drew in many people at the camp. He had elderly, prisoners, people from psychiatric institutions, and 150 foster children, often transferred to care at Happy Havens by court orders.99 He was contacted there by Christian missionaries from World Vision, an international evangelical order that had done espionage work for the CIA in Southeast Asia.100 He met “influential” members of the community and was befriended by Walter Heady, the head of the local chapter of the John Birch Society.101] He used the members of his “church” to organize local voting drives for Richard Nixon’s election, and worked closely with the republican party.102 He was even appointed chairman of the county grand jury.103

“The Messiah from Ukiah,” as he was known then, met and recruited Timothy Stoen, a Stanford graduate and member of the city DA’s office, and his wife Grace.104 During this time, the Layton family, Terri Buford and George Phillip Blakey and other important members joined the Temple.105] The camp “doctor,” Larry Schacht, claims Jones got him off drugs and into medical school during this period.106These were not just street urchins. Buford’s father was a Commander for the fleet at the Philadelphia Navy Base for years.107 The Laytons were a well-heeled, aristocratic family. Dr. Layton donated at least a quarter-million dollars to Jones. His wife son and daughter were all members of the Temple.108 George Blakey, who married Debbie Layton, was from a wealthy British family. He donated $60,000 to pay the lease on the 27,000-acre Guyana site in 1974.109 Lisa Philips Layton had come to the U.S. from a rich Hamburg banking family in Germany.110] Most of the top lieutenants around Jones were from wealthy, educated backgrounds, many with connections to the military or intelligence agencies. These were the people who would set up the bank accounts, complex legal actions, and financial records that put people under the Temple’s control.111

Stoen was able to set up important contacts for Jones as Assistant DA in San Francisco.112 Jones changed his image to that of a liberal.113 He had spent time studying the preaching methods of Fr. Divine in Philadelphia, and attempted to use them in a manipulative way on the streets of San Francisco. Fr. Divine ran a religious and charitable operation among Philadelphia’s poor Black community.114Jones was able to use his followers in an election once again, this time for Mayor Moscone. Moscone responded in 1976, putting Jones in charge of the city Housing Commission.115 In addition, many of his key followers got jobs with the city Welfare Department and much of the recruitment to the Temple in San Francisco came from the ranks of these unemployed and dispossessed people.116 Jones was introduced to many influential liberal and radical people there, and entertained or greeted people ranging from Roslyn Carter to Angela Davis.117

The period when Jones began the Temple there marked the end of an important political decade. Nixon’s election had ushered in a domestic intelligence dead set against the movements for peace, civil rights and social justice. Names like COINTELPRO, CHAOS, and OPERATION GARDEN PLOT, or the HOUSTON PLAN made the news following in the wake of Watergate revelations.118 Senator Ervin called the White House plans against dissent “fascistic.”119 These operations involved the highest levels of military and civilian intelligence and all levels of police agencies in a full-scale attempt to discredit, disrupt and destroy the movements that sprang up in the 1960s. There are indications that these plans, or the mood they created, led to the assassinations of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, as unacceptable “Black Messiahs.”120

One of the architects under then-Governor Reagan in California was now-Attorney General Edwin Meese. He coordinated “Operation Garden Plot” for military intelligence and all police operations and intelligence in a period that was plagued with violations of civil and constitutional rights.121 Perhaps you recall the police attacks on People’s Park, the murder of many Black Panthers and activists, the infiltration of the Free Speech Movement and antiwar activity, and the experimentation on prisoners at Vacaville, or the shooting of George Jackson.122 Meese later bragged that this activity had damaged or destroyed the people he called “revolutionaries.”123 It was into this situation Jones came to usurp leadership.124

After his arrival in Ukiah, his methods were visible to those who took the time to investigate.125 His armed guards wore black uniforms and leather jackboots. His approach was one of deception, and if that wore off, then manipulation and threats. Loyalty to his church included signing blank sheets of paper, later filled in with “confessions’ and used for blackmail purposes, or to extort funds.126 Yet the vast membership he was extorting often owned little, and he tried to milk them for everything, from personal funds to land deeds.127 Illegal activities were regularly reported during this period, but either not investigated or unresolved. He clearly had the cooperation of local police. Years later, evidence would come out of charges of sexual solicitation, mysteriously dropped.128

Those who sought to leave were prevented and rebuked. Local journalist Kathy Hunter wrote in the Ukiah press about “Seven Mysterious Deaths” of the Temple members who had argued with Jones and attempted to leave. One of these was Maxine Swaney.129 Jones openly hinted to other members that he had arranged for them to die, threatening a similar fate to others who would be disloyal.130 Kathy Hunter later tried to visit Jonestown, only to be forcibly drugged by Temple guards, and deported to Georgetown.131 She later charged that Mark Lane approached her, falsely identifying himself as a reporter for Esquire, rather than as an attorney for Jim Jones. He led her to believe he was seeking information on Jones for an exposé in the magazine, and asked to see her evidence.

The pattern was to continue in San Francisco. In addition, Jones required that members practice for the mysterious “White Night,” a mass suicide ritual that would protect them from murder at the hands of their enemies.132 Although the new Temple had no guards or fences to restrict members, few had other places to live, and many had given over all they owned to Jones. They felt trapped inside this community that preached love, but practiced hatred.133

Following press exposure, and a critical article in New West magazine, Jones became very agitated, and the number of suicide drills increased.134 Complaints about mistreatment by current and ex-members began to appear in the media and reach the ears of congressional representatives. Sam Houston, an old friend of Leo Ryan, came to him with questions about the untimely death of his son following his departure from the Temple.135 Later, Timothy and Grace Stoen would complain to Ryan about custody of their young son, who was living with Jones, and urge him to visit the commune.136 Against advice of friends and staff members, Ryan decided to take a team of journalists to Guyana and seek the truth of the situation.137 Some feel that Ryan’s journey there was planned and expected, and used as a convenient excuse to set up his murder. Others feel that this unexpected violation of secrecy around Jonestown set off the spark that led to the mass murder. In either case, it marked the beginning of the end for Ryan and Jones.138

At one point, to show his powers, Jones arranged to be shot in the heart in front of the congregation. Dragged to a back room, apparently wounded and bleeding, he returned a moment later alive and well. While this may have been more of his stage antics to prompt believers’ faith it may also have marked the end of Jim Jones.139 For undisclosed reasons, Jones had and used “doubles.”140 This is very unusual for a religious leader, but quite common in intelligence operations.141]

Even the death and identification of Jim Jones were peculiar. He was apparently shot by another person at the camp.142 Photos of his body do not show identifying tattoos on his chest. The body and face are not clearly recognizable due to bloating and discoloration.143 The FBI reportedly checked his fingerprints twice, a seemingly futile gesture since it is a precise operation. A more logical route would have been to check dental records.144 Several researchers familiar with the case feel that the body may not have been Jones. Even if the person at the site was one of the “doubles,” it does not mean Jones is still alive. He may have been killed at an earlier point.

What Was Jonestown?

According to one story, Jones was seeking a place on earth that would survive the effects of nuclear war, relying only on an article inEsquire magazine for his list.145 The real reason for his locations in Brazil, California, Guyana and elsewhere deserve more scrutiny.146At one point Jones wanted to set up in Grenada, and he invited then-Prime Minister Sir Eric Gairy to visit the Temple in San Francisco.147He invested $200,000 in the Grenada National Bank in 1977 to pave the way, and some $76,000 was still there after the massacre.148

His final choice, the Matthew’s Ridge section in Guyana is an interesting one. It was originally the site of a Union Carbide bauxite and manganese mine, and Jones used the dock they left behind.149 At an earlier point, it had been one of seven possible sites chosen for the relocation of the Jews after World War II.150 Plans to inhabit the jungles of Guyana’s interior with cheap labor date back to 1919.151Resources buried there are among the richest in the world, and include manganese, diamonds, gold, bauxite and uranium.152 Forbes Burnham, the Prime Minister, had participated in a scheme to repatriate Blacks from the UK to work in the area. Like all earlier attempts, it failed.153

Once chosen, the site was leased and worked on by a select crew of Temple members in preparation for the arrival of the body of the church. The work was done in cooperation with Burnham and the U.S. Embassy there.154 But if these were idealists seeking a better life, their arrival in “Utopia” was a strange welcome. Piled into busses in San Francisco, they had driven to Florida. From there, Pan American charter planes delivered them to Guyana.155 When they arrived at the airport, the Blacks were taken off the plane, bound and gagged.156 The deception had finally been stripped bare of all pretense. The Blacks were so isolated and controlled that neighbors as close as five miles from the site did not know that Blacks lived at Jonestown. The only public representatives seen in Guyana were white.157] Guyanese children were “bought” also.158

According to survivors’ reports, they entered a virtual slave labor camp. Worked for 16 to 18 hours daily, they were forced to live in cramped quarters on minimum rations, usually rice, bread and sometimes rancid meat. Kept on a schedule of physical and mental exhaustion, they were also forced to stay awake at night and listen to lectures by Jones. Threats and abuse became more common.159 The camp medical staff under Dr. Lawrence Schacht was known to perform painful suturing without anaesthetic. They administered drugs, and kept daily medical records.160 Infractions of the rules or disloyalty led to increasingly harsh punishments, including forced drugging, sensory isolation in an underground box, physical torture and public sexual rape and humiliation. Beatings and verbal abuse were commonplace. Only the special guards were treated humanely and fed decently.161 People with serious injuries were flown out, but few ever returned.162 Perhaps the motto at Jonestown should have been the same as the one at Auschwitz, developed by Larry Schacht’s namesake, Dr. Hjalmar Schacht, the Nazi Minister of Economics, “Arheit Macht Frei,” or “Work Will Make You Free.” Guyana even considered setting up an “Auschwitz-like museum” at the site, but abandoned the idea.163

By this point, Jones had amassed incredible wealth. Press estimates ranged from $26 million to $2 billion, including bank accounts, foreign investments and real estate. Accounts were set up worldwide by key members, often in the personal name of certain people in the Temple.164 Much of this money, listed publicly after the massacre, disappeared mysteriously. It was a fortune far too large to have come from membership alone. The receivership set up by the government settled on a total of $10 million. Of special interest were the Swiss bank accounts opened in Panama, the money taken from the camp, and the extensive investments in Barclay’s Bank.165 Other sources of income included the German banking family of Lisa Philips Layton, Larry’s mother.166 Also, close to $65,000 a month income was claimed to come from welfare and social security checks for 199 members, sent to the Temple followers and signed over to Jones.167 In addition, there are indications that Blakey and other members were supplementing the Temple funds with international smuggling of guns and drugs.168 At one point, Charles Garry noted that Jones and his community were “literally sitting on a gold mine.” Mineral distribution maps of Guyana suggest he was right.169

To comprehend this well-financed, sinister operation, we must abandon the myth that this was a religious commune and study instead the history that led to its formation. Jonestown was an experiment, part of a 30-year program called CIA and military intelligence code name for mind control.170 A close study of Senator Ervin’s 1974 report, Individual Rights and the Government’s Role in Behavior Modification, shows that these agencies had certain “target populations” in mind, for both individual and mass control. Blacks, women, prisoners, the elderly, the young, and inmates of psychiatric wards were selected as “potentially violent.”171 There were plans in California at the time for a Center for the Study and Reduction of Violence, expanding on the horrific work of Dr. José Delgado, Drs. Mark and Ervin, and Dr. Jolly West, experts in implantation, psychosurgery, and tranquilizers. The guinea pigs were to be drawn from the ranks of the “target populations,” and taken to an isolated military missile base in California.172 In that same period, Jones began to move his Temple members to Jonestown. The were the exact population selected for such tests.173

The meticulous daily notes and drug records kept by Larry Schacht disappeared, but evidence did not.174 The history of MK-ULTRA and its sister programs (>MK-DELTA, ARTICHOKE, BLUEBIRD, etc.) records a combination of drugs, drug mixtures, electroshock and torture as methods for control. The desired results ranged from temporary and permanent amnesia, uninhibited confessions, and creation of second personalities, to programmed assassins and preconditioned suicidal urges. One goal was the ability to control mass populations, especially for cheap labor.175 Dr. Delgado told Congress that he hoped for a future where a technology would control workers in the field and troops at war with electronic remote signals. He found it hard to understand why people would complain about electrodes implanted in their brains to make them “both happy and productive.”176

On the scene at Jonestown, Guyanese troops discovered a large cache of drugs, enough to drug the entire population of Georgetown, Guyana (well over 200,000)177 for more than a year. According to survivors, these were being used regularly “to control” a population of only 1,100 people.178 One footlocker contained 11,000 doses of thorazine, a dangerous tranquilizer. Drugs used in the testing for MK-ULTRA were found in abundance, including sodium pentathol (a truth serum), chloral hydrate (a hypnotic), demerol, thalium (confuses thinking), and many others.179 Schacht had supplies of haliopareael and largatil as well, two other major tranquilizers.180 The actual description of life at Jonestown is that of a tightly run concentration camp, complete with medical and psychiatric experimentation. The stresses and isolation of the victims is typical of sophisticated brainwashing techniques. The drugs and special tortures add an additional experimental aspect to the horror.181] This more clearly explains the medical tags on the bodies, and why they had to be removed. It also suggests an additional motive for frustrating any chemical autopsies, since these drugs would have been found in the system of the dead.

The story of Jonestown is that of a gruesome experiment, not a religious utopian society. On the eve of the massacre, Forbes Burnham was reportedly converted to “born again” Christianity by members of the Full Gospel Christian Businessman’s Association, including Lionel Luckhoo, a Temple lawyer in Guyana.182 This same group, based in California, also reportedly converted Guatemalan dictator Rios Montt prior to his massacres there and they were in touch with Jim Jones in Ukiah.183 They currently conduct the White House prayer breakfasts for Mr. Reagan.184 With Ryan on his way to Jonestown, the seal of secrecy was broken. In a desperate attempt to test their conditioning methods, the Jonestown elite apparently tried to implement a real suicide drill.185 Clearly, it led to a revolt, and the majority of people fled, unaware that there were people waiting to catch them.

One Too Many Jonestowns

Author Don Freed, an associate of Mark Lane, said that Martin Luther King, “if he could see Johnstown would recognize it as the next step in his agenda, and he would say, one, two, three, many more Jonestowns.”186 Strangely enough, almost every map of Guyana in the major press located Jonestown at a different place following the killings. One map even shows a second site in the area called “Johnstown.”187Perhaps there were multiple camps and Leo Ryan was only shown the one they hoped he would see. In any case, the Jonestown model survives, and similar camps, and their sinister designs, show up in many places.

Inside Guyana itself, approximately 25 miles to the south of Matthews Ridge, is a community called Hilltown, named after religious leader Rabbi Hill. Hill has used the names Abraham Israel and Rabbi Emmanuel Washington. Hilltown, set up about the same time as Jonestown, followed the departure of David Hill, who was known in Cleveland, a fugitive of the U.S. courts. Hill rules with an “iron fist” over some 8,000 Black people from Guyana and America who believe they are the Lost Tribe of Israel and the real Hebrews of Biblical prophecy.188 Used as strong-arm troops, and “internal mercenaries” to insure Burnham’s election, as were Jonestown members, the Hilltown people were allowed to clear the Jonestown site of shoes and unused weapons, both in short supply in Guyana.189 Hill says his followers would gladly kill themselves at his command, but he would survive since, unlike Jones, he is “in control.”190

Similar camps were reported at the time in the Philippines. Perhaps the best known example is the fascist torture camp in Chile known as Colonia Dignidad. Also a religious cult built around a single individual, this one came from Germany to Chile in 1961. In both cases, the camp was their “Agricultural Experiment.” Sealed and protected by the dreaded Chilean DINA police, Colonia Dignidad serves as a torture chamber for political dissidents. To the Jonestown monstrosities, they have added dogs specially trained to attack human genitals.191 The operations there have included the heavy hand of decapitation specialist Michael Townley Welch, an American CIA agent, as well as reported visits by Nazi war criminals Dr. Josef Mengele and Martin Bormann. Currently, another such campsite exists at Pisagua, Chile.192Temple member Jeannie Mills, now dead, reported having seen actual films of a Chilean torture camp while at Jonestown. The only source possible at the time was the Chilean fascists themselves.193

In the current period, Jonestown is being “repopulated” with 100,000 Laotian Hmong people. Many of them grew opium for CIA money in Southeast Asia. Over 1,000 reside there already under a scheme designed by Billy Graham’s nephew Ernest, and members of the Federation of Evangelical Ministries Association in Wheaton, Illinois (World Vision, World Medical Relief, Samaritan’s Purse, and Carl McIntyre’s International Council of Christian Churches).194] Similar plans devised by the Peace Corps included moving inner-city Blacks from America to Jamaica, and other Third World countries. And World Relief attempted to move the population of the Island of Dominica to Jonestown.195 It is only a matter of time before another Jonestown will be exposed, perhaps leading again to massive slaughter.

The Links to U.S. Intelligence Agencies

Our story so far has hinted at connections to U.S. intelligence, such as the long-term friendship of Jones and CIA associate Dan Mitrione. But the ties are much more direct when a full picture of the operation is revealed. To start with, the history of Forbes Burnham’s rise to power in Guyana is fraught with the clear implication of a CIA coup d’état to oust troublesome independent leader Cheddi Jagan.196‘ In addition, the press and other evidence indicated the presence of a CIA agent on the scene at the time of the massacre. This man, Richard Dwyer, was working as Deputy Chief of Mission for the U.S. Embassy in Guyana.197 Identified in Who’s Who in the CIA, he has been involved since 1959, and was last stationed in Martinique.198 Present at the camp site and the airport strip, his accounts were used by the State Department to confirm the death of Leo Ryan. At the massacre, Jones said, “Get Dwyer out of here” just before the killings began.199

Other Embassy personnel, who knew the situation at Jonestown well, were also connected to intelligence work. U.S. Ambassador John Burke, who served in the CIA with Dwyer in Thailand, was an Embassy official described by Philip Agee as working for the CIA since 1963. A Reagan appointee to the CIA, he is still employed by the Agency, usually on State Department assignments.200 Burke tried to stop Ryan’s investigation.201 Also at the Embassy was Chief Consular officer Richard McCoy, described as “close to Jones,” who worked for military intelligence and was “on loan” from the Defense Department at the time of the massacre.202 According to a standard source, “The U.S. embassy in Georgetown housed the Georgetown CIA station. It now appears that the majority and perhaps all of the embassy officials were CIA officers operating under State Department covers . . .”203 Dan Webber, who was sent to the site of the massacre the day after, was also named as 204 Not only did the State Department conceal all reports of violations at Jonestown from Congressman Leo Ryan, but the Embassy regularly provided Jones with copies of all congressional inquiries under the Freedom of Information Act.205

Ryan had challenged the Agency’s overseas operations before, as a member of the House Committee responsible for oversight on intelligence. He was an author of the controversial Hughes-Ryan Amendment that would have required CIA disclosure in advance to the congressional committees of all planned covert operations. The Amendment was defeated shortly after his death.206

American intelligence agencies have a sordid history of cooperative relations with Nazi war criminals and international fascism.207 In light of this, consider the curious ties of the family members of the top lieutenants to Jim Jones. The Layton family is one example. Dr. Laurence Layton was Chief of Chemical and Biological Warfare Research at Dugway Proving Grounds in Utah, for many years, and later worked as Director of Missile and Satellite Development at the Navy Propellant Division, Indian Head, Maryland.208 His wife, Lisa, had come from a rich German family. Her father, Hugo, had represented I.G. Farben as a stockbroker.209 Her stories about hiding her Jewish past from her children for most of her life, and her parents’ escape from a train heading for a Nazi concentration camp seem shallow, as do Dr. Layton’s Quaker religious beliefs. The same family sent money to Jonestown regularly.210 Their daughter, Debbie, met and married George Philip Blakey in an exclusive private school in England. Blakey’s parents have extensive stock holdings in Solvay drugs, a division of the Nazi cartel I.G. Farben.211 He also contributed financially.212

Terri Buford’s father, Admiral Charles T. Buford, worked with Navy Intelligence.213 In addition, Blakey was reportedly running mercenaries from Jonestown to CIA-backed 214 Maria Katsaris’ father was a minister with the Greek Orthodox Church, a common conduit of CIA fundings, and Maris claimed she had proof he was CIA. She was shot in the head, and her death was ruled a suicide, but at one point Charles Beikman was charged with killing her.215 On their return to the United States, the “official” survivors were represented by attorney Joseph Blatchford who had been named prior to that time in a scandal involving CIA infiltration of the Peace Corps.216 Almost everywhere you look at Jonestown, U.S. intelligence and fascism rear their ugly heads.

The connection of intelligence agencies to cults is nothing new. A simple but revealing example is the Unification Church, tied to both the Korean CIA (i.e., American CIA in Korea), and the international fascist network known as the World Anti-Communist League (WACL). The Moonies hosted WACL’s first international conference.217 What distinguished Jonestown was both the level of control and the openly sinister involvement. It was imperative that they cover their tracks.218

Maria Katsaris sent Michael Prokes, Tim Carter, and another guard out at the last minute with $500,000 cash in a suitcase, and instructions for a drop point. Her note inside suggests the funds were destined for the Soviet Union.219 Prokes later shot himself at a San Francisco press conference, where he claimed to be an FBI informant.220 Others reported meeting with KGB agents and plans to move to Russia.221 This disinformation was part of a “red smear” to be used if they had to abandon the operation. The Soviet Union had no interest in the money and even less in Jonestown. The cash was recovered by the Guyanese government.222

Their hidden funding may include more intelligence links. A mysterious account in Panama, totaling nearly $5 million in the name of an “Associacion Pro Religiosa do San Pedro, S.A.” was located.223 This unknown Religious Association of St. Peter was probably one of the twelve phony companies set up by Archbishop Paul Marcinkus to hide the illegal investments of Vatican funds through the scandal-ridden Banco Ambrosiano.224 A few days after the story broke about the accounts, the President of Panama, and most of the government resigned, Roberto Calvi of Banco Ambrosiano was murdered, and the Jonestown account disappeared from public scrutiny and court record.225

The direct orders to cover up the cause of death came from the top levels of the American government. Zbigniew Brezezinsky delegated to Robert Pastor, and he in turn ordered Lt. Col. Gordon Sumner to strip the bodies of identity.226 Pastor is now Deputy Director of the CIA.227 One can only wonder how many others tied to the Jonestown operation were similarly promoted.

The Strange Connection to the Murder of Martin Luther King

One of the persistent problems in researching Jonestown is that it seems to lead to so many other criminal activities, each with its own complex history and cast of characters. Perhaps the most disturbing of these is the connection that appears repeatedly between the characters in the Jonestown story and the key people involved in the murder and investigating of Martin Luther King.

The first clue to this link appeared in the personal histories of the members of the Ryan investigation team who were so selectively and deliberately killed at Port Kaituma. Don Harris, a veteran NBC reporter, had been the only network newsman on the scene to cover Martin Luther King’s activity in Memphis at the time of King’s assassination. He had interviewed key witnesses at the site. His coverage of the urban riots that followed won him an Emmy award.228 Gregory Robinson, a “fearless” journalist from the San Francisco Examiner, had photographed the same riots in Washington, D.C. When he was approached for copies of the films by Justice Department officials, he threw the negatives into the Potomac river.229

The role of Mark Lane, who served as attorney for Jim Jones, is even more clearly intertwined.230 Lane had co-authored a book with Dick Gregory, claiming FBI complicity in the King murder.231 He was hired as the attorney for James Earl Ray, accused assassin, when Ray testified before the House Select Committee on Assassinations about King.232 Prior to this testimony, Ray was involved in an unusual escape plot at Brushy Mountain State Prison.233 The prisoner who had helped engineer the escape plot was later inexplicably offered an early, parole by members of the Tennessee Governor’s office. These officials, and Governor Blanton himself, were to come under close public scrutiny and face legal charges in regard to bribes taken to arrange illegal early pardons for prisoners.234

One of the people living at Jonestown was ex-FBI agent Wesley Swearington, who at least publicly condemned the COINTELPRO operations and other abuses, based on stolen classified documents, at the Jonestown site. Lane had reportedly met with him there at least a year before the massacre. Terri Buford said the documents were passed on to Charles Garry. Lane used information from Swearingen in his thesis on the FBI and King’s murder. Swearingen later served as a key witness in suits against the Justice Department brought by the Socialist Workers Party.235 When Larry Flynt, the flamboyant publisher of Hustler magazine, offered a, $1 million reward leading to the capture and conviction of the John F. Kennedy killers, the long distance number listed to collect information and leads was being answered by Mark Lane and Wesley Swearingen.236

With help from officials in Tennessee, Governor Blanton’s office, Lane managed to get legal custody of a woman who had been incarcerated in the Tennessee state psychiatric system for nearly eight years.237 This woman, Grace Walden Stephens, had been a witness in the King murder.238 She was living at the time in Memphis in a rooming house across from the hotel when Martin Luther King was shot.239 The official version of events had Ray located in the common bathroom of the rooming house, and claimed he used a rifle to murder King from that window.240 Grace Stephens did, indeed, see a man run from the bathroom, past her door and down to the street below.241 A rifle, later linked circumstantially to James Earl Ray, was found inside a bundle at the base of the rooming house stairs, and identified as the murder weapon.242 But Grace, who saw the man clearly, refused to identify him as Ray when shown photographs by the 243 Her testimony was never introduced at the trial. The FBI relied, instead, on the word of her common law husband, Charles Stephens, who was drunk and unconscious at the time of the incident.244 Her persistence in saying that it was not James Earl Ray was used at her mental competency hearings as evidence against her, and she disappeared into the psychiatric system.245

Grace Walden Stephens took up residence in Memphis with Lane, her custodian, and Terri Buford, a key Temple member who had returned to the U.S. before the killings to live with Lane.246 While arranging for her to testify before the Select Committee on Ray’s behalf, Lane and Buford were plotting another fate for Grace Stephens. Notes from Buford to Jones, found in the aftermath of the killings, discussed arrangements with Lane to move Grace Stephens to Jonestown.247 The problem that remained was lack of a passport, but Buford suggested either getting a passport on the black market, or using the passport of former Temple member Maxine Swaney.248 Swaney, dead for nearly 2-1/2 years since her departure from the Ukiah camp, was in no position to argue and Jones apparently kept her passport with him.249 Whether Grace ever arrived at Jonestown is unclear.

Lane was also forced to leave Ray in the midst of testimony to the Select Committee when he got word that Ryan was planning to visit. Lane had attempted to discourage the trip earlier in a vaguely threatening letter.250 Now he rushed to be sure he arrived with the group.251 At the scene, he failed to warn Ryan and others, knowing that the sandwiches and other food might be drugged, but refrained from eating it himself.252 Later, claiming that he and Charles Garry would write the official history of the “revolutionary suicide,” Lane was allowed to leave the pieces of underwear to mark their way back to Georgetown.253 If true, it seems an unlikely method if they were in any fear of pursuit. They had heard gunfire and screams back at the camp.254 Lane was reportedly well aware of the forced drugging and suicide drills at Jonestown before Ryan arrived.255

Another important figure in the murder of Martin Luther King was his mother, Alberta. A few weeks after the first public announcement by Coretta Scott King that she believed her husband’s murder was part of a conspiracy, Mrs. Alberta King was brutally shot to death in Atlanta, while attending church services.256 Anyone who had seen the physical wounds suffered by King might have been an adverse witness to the official version, since the Wound angles did not match the ballistic direction of a shot from the rooming house.257 Her death also closely coincided with the reopening of the Tennessee state court review of Ray’s conviction based on a guilty plea, required by a 6th Circuit decision.258 The judge in that case reportedly refused to allow witnesses from beyond a 100-mile radius from the courtroom.259

The man convicted of shooting King’s mother was Marcus Wayne Chenault. His emotional affect following the murder was unusual. Grinning, he asked if he had hit anyone.260 He had reportedly been dropped off at the church by people he knew in Ohio.261 While at Ohio State University, he was part of a group known as “the Troop,” run by a Black minister and gun collector who used the name Rabbi Emmanuel Israel. This man, described in the press as a “mentor” for Chenault, left the area immediately after the shooting.262 In the same period, Rabbi Hill traveled from Ohio to Guyana and set up Hilltown, using similar aliases, and preaching the same message of a “black Hebrew elite.”263 Chenault confided to SCLC leaders that he was one of many killers who were working to assassinate a long list of Black leadership. The names he said were on this list coincided with similar “death lists” distributed by the KKK, and linked to the COINTELPRO operations in the 60s.264

The real backgrounds and identities of Marcus Wayne Chenault and Rabbi Hill may never be discovered. But one thing is certain: Martin Luther King Would never had countenanced the preachings of Jim Jones, had he lived to hear them.265 

Aftermath

In the face of such horror, it may seem little compensation to know that a part of the truth has been unearthed. But for the families and some of the Survivors, the truth, however painful, is the only path to being relieved of the burden of their doubts. It’s hard to believe that President Carter was calling on us at the time not to “overreact.” The idea that a large community of Black people would not only stand by and be poisoned at the suggestion of Jim Jones, but would allow their children to be murdered first, is a monstrous lie, and a racist insult.266 We now know that the most direct description of Jonestown is that it was a Black genocide plan. One Temple director, Joyce Shaw, described the Jonestown massacre as, “some kind of horrible government experiments, or some sort of sick racial thing, a plan like that of the Germans to exterminate Blacks.”267 If we refuse to look further into this nightmarish event, there will be more Jonestowns to come. They will move from Guyana to our own back yard.

The cast of characters is neither dead nor inactive. Key members of the armed guard were ordered to be on board the Temple Ship,Cudjoe — at the hour of the massacre they were on a supply run to Trinidad. George Phillip Blakey phoned his father-in-law, Dr. Lawrence Layton, from Panama after the event.268 At least ten members of the Temple remained on the boat, and set up a new community in Trinidad while Nigel Slingger, a Grenada businessman and insurance broker for Jonestown, repaired the 400-ton shipping vessel. Then Charles Touchette, Paul McCann, Stephan Jones, and George Blakey set up an “open house” in Grenada with the others. McCann spoke about starting a shipping company to “finance the continued work of the original Temple.”269

That “work” may have included the mysterious operations of the mental hospital in Grenada that eluded government security by promising free medical care.270 The hospital as operated by Sir Geoffrey Bourne, Chancellor of the St. George’s University Medical School, was also staffed by his son Dr. Peter Bourne.271 His son’s history includes work with psychological experiments and USAID in Vietnam, the methadone clinics in the U.S., and a drug scandal in the Carter White House.272 The mental hospital was the only structure bombed during the U.S. invasion of Grenada in 1983. This was part of a plan to put Sir Eric Gairy back in power.273 Were additional experiments going on at the site?274

In addition, the killers of Leo Ryan and others at Port Kaituma were never accounted for fully. The trial of Larry Layton was mishandled by the Guyanese courts, and the U.S. system as well.275 No adequate evidentiary hearings have occurred either at the trial or in state and congressional reviews. The Jonestown killers, trained assassins and mercenaries, are not on trial. They might be working in Africa or Central America. Their participation in Jonestown can be used as an “explanation” for their involvement in later murders here, such as the case of the attack on school children in Los Angeles.276 They should be named and located.

The money behind Jonestown was never fully examined or recovered. The court receivership only collected a fraction. The bulk went to pay back military operations and burial costs. Families of the dead were awarded only minimal amounts.277 Some filed suit, unsuccessfully, to learn more about the circumstances of the deaths, and who was responsible. Joe Holsinger, Leo Ryan’s close friend and assistant, studied the case for two years and reached the same unnerving conclusions: these people were murdered, there was evidence of a mass mind-control experiment, and the top levels of civilian and military intelligence were involved.278 He worked with Ryan’s family members to prove the corruption and injustice, but they could barely afford the immense court costs and case preparation. Their suit, as well as a similar one brought by ex-members and families of the victims, had to be dropped for lack of funds.279

The international operations of World Vision and the related evangelical groups continue unabashed. World Vision official John W. Hinckley, Sr. was on his way to a Guatemalan water project run by the organization on the day his son shot at president Reagan.280 A mysterious “double” of Hinckley, Jr., a man named Richardson, followed Hinckley’s path from Colorado to Connecticut, and even wrote love letters to Jody Foster. Richardson was a follower of Carl McIntyre’s International Council of Christian Churches, and attended their Bible School in Florida. He was arrested shortly after the assassination attempt in New York’s Port Authority with a weapon, and claimed he intended to kill Reagan.281

Another World Vision employee, Mark David Chapman, worked at their Haitian refugee camp in Ft. Chaffee, Arkansas. He was later to gain infamy as the assassin of John Lennon in New York City.282 World Vision works with refugees worldwide. At the Honduran border, they are present in camps used by American CIA to recruit mercenaries against Nicaragua. They were at Sabra and Shatilla, Camps in Lebanon where fascist Phalange massacred the Palestinians.283 Their representatives in the Cuban refugee camps on the east coast included members of the Bay of Pigs operation, CIA-financed mercenaries from Omega 7 and Alpha 66.284 Are they being used as a worldwide cover for the recruitment and training of these killers? They are, as mentioned earlier, working to repopulate Jonestown with Laotians who served as mercenaries for our 285

Silence in the face of these murders is the worst possible response. The telling sign above the Jonestown dead read, “Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”286 The genocide will come home to America. How many spent time studying the rash of child murders in Atlanta’s Black community or asked the necessary questions about the discrepancies in the conviction of Wayne Williams?287 Would we recognize a planned genocide if it occurred under similar subterfuge?

Leo Ryan’s daughter, Shannon, lives among the disciples of another cult today, at the new city of Rajneeshpuram in Arizona. She was quoted in the press, during the recent controversy over a nationwide recruiting drive to bring urban homeless people to the commune, saying she did not believe it could end like Jonestown, since the leader would not ask them to commit suicide. “If he did ask me, I would do it,” she said.288 Homeless recruits who had left since then are suing in court because of suspicious and unnecessary injections given them by the commune’s doctor, and a liquid they were served daily in unmarked jars that many believe was not simply “beer.” One man in the suit claims he was drugged and disoriented for days after his first injection.289

The ultimate victims of mind control at Jonestown are the American people. If we fail to look beyond the constructed images given us by the television and the press, then our consciousness is manipulated, just as well as the Jonestown victims’ was. Facing nuclear annihilation, may see the current militarism of the Reagan policies, and military training itself, as the real “mass suicide cult.” If the discrepancy between the truth of Jonestown and the official version can be so great, what other lies have we been told about major events?290

History is precious. In a democracy, knowledge must be accessible for informed consent to function. Hiding or distorting history behind “national security” leaves the public as the final enemy of the government. Democratic process cannot operate on “need to know.” Otherwise we live in the 1984 envisioned by Orwell’s projections and we must heed his warning that those who control the past control the future.291

The real tragedy of Jonestown is not only that it occurred, but that so few chose to ask themselves why or how, so few sought to find out the facts behind the bizarre tale used to explain away the death of more than 900 people, and that so many will continue to be blind to the grim reality of our intelligence agencies. In the long run, the truth will come out. Only our complicity in the deception continues to dishonor the dead.

SOURCES

1. Hold Hands and Die! John Maguire (Dale Books, 1978), p. 235 (Story of the Century); Raven, Tim Reiterman (Dutton, 1982) p. 575 (citing poll result).

2. The standard version first appeared in two “instant books,” so instant (12/10/78) they seemed to have been written before the event! TheSuicide Cult, Kilduff & Javers (Bantam Books, 1978); Guyana Massacre, Charles Krause (Berkeley Pub., 1978).Other standard research works on the topic include: White Night, John Peer Nugent (Wade, 1979); Ravenop cit., and Hold Hands and Die!op cit.The Cult That Died, George Klineman (Putnam 1980); The Children of Jonestown, Kenneth Wooden (McGraw-Hill, 1981);The Strongest Poison, Mark Lane (Hawthorn Books, 1980); Our Father Who Art In Hell, James Reston (Times Books, 1981); Journey to Nowhere, Shiva Naipaul (Simon & Schuster, 1981); The Assassination of Representative Leo J. Ryan & The Jonestown, Guyana Tragedy, Report, House Committee on Foreign Affairs (GPO, May 15, 1979).Personal accounts by members of People’s Temple and survivors of Jonestown: Six Years With God, Jeannie Mills (A&W Publ., 1979); People’s Temple, People’s Tomb, Phil Kerns (Logos, Int., 1979); Deceived, Mel White (Spire Books, 1979); The Broken God, Bonnie Theilmann (David Cook, 1979); Awake in a Nightmare, Feinsod (Norton, 1981); In My Father’s House, Yee & Layton (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1981). 

3. “The People’s Temple,” William Pfaff, New Yorker, 12/18/78; Hold Hands, p. 241-7 (cults) and Journey to Nowhere, p. 294 (the period); The Family, Ed Sanders (Avon Press, 1974) (Charlie Manson); Snapping, Flo Conway (brainwashing); Ecstasy & Holiness, Frank Musgrove (Indiana Univ. Press, 1974).In case you missed the decade and what happened: The Sixties (Rolling Stone Press, 1977); The Sixties Papers, Judith & Stew Albert (Praeger, 1984); By Any Means Necessary: Outlaw Manifestoes 1965-70, P. Stansill (Penguin, 1971); Protest & Discontent, Bernard Crick (Penguin 1970); Fire in the Streets, Milton Viorst (Random House, 1982); Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984(Yipster Times, 1984); The Making of a Counter-Culture, Theodor Roszak (Doubleday, 1969). 

4. “Inside People’s Temple,” Marshall Kilduff, New West, 8/1/77; Hold Hands, p. 100.

5. “Rev Jones Became West Coast Power,” Washington Post (WP), 11/20/78. Hold Hands, p. 130 and Journey to Nowhere, p. 47. 

6. “Rev. Jones Accused of Coercion,” New York Times (NYT), 4/12/79; NYT, 11/27/78 (warning letter to Ryan, 6/78). 

7. Assassination of Leo J. Ryanop cit., pp. 1-3; “Ryan to Visit,” Kilduff, San Francisco Chronicle (SFC), 11/8/78. 

8. “A Hell of a Story: The Selling of a Massacre,” Wash. Jrn. Rev., Jan-Feb, 1979. Standard details recounted in books cited above in footnote 2Children of Jonestown, p. 201 (mass grave); NYT, 12/19 and 12/20/78, and 1/10/79 (28 cremated), also 1/25 and 5/25/79 (bodies cremated in mass grave, 248). 

9. Raven, p. 576 (Layton charges); WP 11/19/84 (Ryan medal). 

10. Hold Hands, p. 216. 

11. Helter Skelter, Vincent Bugliosi (Norton, 1974).

12. Hold Hands, pp. 215-16.

13. New York Post, 11/21/78 (headline); WP, 11/21/78, San Francisco Examiner (SFE), 11/22/78, Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/23/78, NYT, 11/22/78 (flee to jungle); NYT, 11/21-23/78 (estimated 4-500 missing); White Night, pp. 224-226 and NYT, 11/23/78 (U.S. search with loudspeakers). 

14. Boston Globe, 11/21/78, Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78, NYT, 11/20/78 (est. 11-1200); White Night, p. 228 (Jones says 1,200), Guyanese Daily Mirror, 11/23/78 (1,000). 

15. WP, 11/21/78 (passports); White Night, p. 230 (809 visa applications), and Hold Hands, p. 146 (800 on busses to Florida); Children of Jonestown, p. 202, and NYT, 11/26/78 (children, 260 dead at site, 276 at Dover). 

16. White Night, p. 223. NYT, 11/21/78 (408 dead, Guyanese “pick way” to count), 11/22/78 (409 dead, U.S. Army teams), 11/23/78 (400 dead, Maj. Helming, U.S.), 11/24/78 (409 dead, still). 

17. White Night, p. 231 and Hold Hands, pp. 226-34; NYT, 11/25/78 (775, P. Reid, Guyana), 11/26/78 (over 900, U.S. “final” 910, AF or 914, Reuters); 11/29/78 (900, Lloyd Barker, Guyana), 12/1/78 (911, U.S. Air Force), 12/4/78 (911, Dover AFB, Del.).

18. Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/23/85.

19. White Night, pp. 229-30 (can’t count); NYT, 11/25/78 (State Dept. Business, “rough”), 11/25/78 (American official disagrees, says Guyanese count “firm”); Children of Jonestown, p. 196 (poking). 

20. White Night, p. 229 (pavilion story), 230 (“mounds of people,” Maj. Hickman); SFE 11/25/78 (adults covered children); NYT, 11/25/78 (“layered,” Ridley, Guyana, but U.S. soldier, “only one layer”). 

21. Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78 (82 children, 163 women, 138 men first count). 

22. Photographs appear in most of the standard reference works, see footnote 2. Also, good pictures in the following: “Jonestown: the Survivors’ Story,” NYT Magazine, 11/18/79; “Death in the Jungle,” 11/27/78 and “Cult of Death,” 12/4/78 in Newsweek; “Cult Massacre,” 11/27/78 and “Cult of Death,” 12/4/78 in Time; “Cult of Madness,” 12/4/78 and “Bloody Trail Behind Jonestown,” 12/25/78 in Macleans; “In the Valley of the Shadow of Death,” Tim Cahill, Rolling Stone, 1/25/79; “Questions Linger about Guyana,” Sidney Jones, Oakland Times, 12/9/78; “Cult Defectors Suspect U.S. of Cover-up,” Los Angeles Times, 12/18/78. 

23. White Night, p. 229 (quoting State Dept. Bushnell), and Hold Hands, p. 233 (doubts); NYT, 11/23/78 (U.S. searching, Carter); 11/24/78 (“in vain”), 11/29/78 (“none”), and 12/1/78 (30-40 in Venezuela). 

24. WP, 11/21/78 (“Cult Head Leads 408 to Death”); NYT, 11/20-22/78 (searching, pickup Lane & Garry); White Night, p. 239 (Burnham sends in “his boys”). 

25. White Night, p. 224 (over 300 U.S. troops, 11/20); Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/23/78 (325 U.S. troops); Hold Hands, p. 200 (200 for clean-up) and NYT, 11/23/78 (239 to evacuate). What was the function of nearly 100 additional U.S. forces? ” Jocks in the Jungle,” London Sunday Times, 11/78 (British Black Watch troops).

26. Photographs, see footnote 22Strongest Poison, p. 194 (Lou Gurvich, “dragged and laid out”).

27. “Mystery Shrouds Jonestown Affair,” Guyanese Daily Mirror, 11/23/78; NYT, 11/24 and 29/78 (missing in jungle disappear, Guyanese say “none,” Barker).

28. SFE, 11/20/78 (headline), also WP, 11/21/78 or NYT, 11/28/78. 

29. Children of Jonestown, p. 193; NYT, 12/14/78 (Mootoo testifies to coroner’s jury), 2/18/79 (Chicago Med. Examiner Robt. Stein promised help, none came).

30. A Guide to Pathological Evidence for Lawyers and Police Officers, F. Jaffe (Carswell Press, 1983); Poisons, Properties, Chemical Identification, Symptoms and Emergency Treatment, V. Brooks (Van Nostrand, 1958). 

31. Photographs, see footnote 22. “Questions Linger,” Oakland Times, 12/9/78. 

32. “Coroner Says 700 Who Died in Cult were Slain,” Miami Herald, 12/17/78; NYT, 12/12/78 (injections, upper arm), 11/17/78 (700 were murdered), 12/18/78 (Mootoo shocks American Academy of Forensic Scientists meeting). 

33. White Night, pp. 230-1 (shot); WP, 11/221/78 (shot), Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/23/78 (“bullets in bodies,” Ridley); NYT, 11/29/78 (“no guns/struggle,” Lloyd Barker), 11/20/78 (“no violence,” Ridley); NYT, 11/18,19,21/78 (Jim Jones, Annie Moore, Maria Katsaris shot in head); WP, 11/21/78 (“forced to die by guards”), also Washington Star, 11/25/78 (forced). 

34. Children of Jonestown, p. 191 and WP, 11/21/78 (unknown if Jones shot himself); Strongest Poison, p. 194 (Gurvich, no nitrate test on hands); Hold Hands, p. 260 (gun far from body); Miami Herald, 12/17/78 (Mootoo suspects murdered); NYT, 11/26/78 (drug o.d., shot after, U.S. Major Groom), 12/1,7/78 (Guyanese and U.S. pathologists autopsy), 12/10/78 (ballistics tests), 12/20,21/78 (illegal cremation), 12/23/78 (not suicide, Mag. Bacchus, Guyana Coroner’s Jury).

35. Raven, p. 576 and Miami Herald, 12/17/78 (grand jury decision); Strongest Poison, p. 194 (Gurvich, evidence of shooting, over 600 bodies);NYT, 12/13/78 (grand jury set up), 12/14,15,17/78 (Mootoo testimony, tour of site), 12/23/78 (conclusion, “persons unknown,” Katsaris, Moore suicides). 

36. Hold Hands, cover photo, and see footnote 22

37. White Night, p. 231 (Schuler quote), Children of Jonestown, p. 197 (unaware); Strongest Poison, pp. 182-89 (autopsy problems); NYT, 11/26/78 and 12/5/78 (no autopsies, reluctant), 11/26/78 (Mootoo’s work unknown). 

38. Hold Hands, p. 260, and see footnotes 172833 or Lloyd Barker; “Cult Defectors Suspect Cover-up,” LAT, 12/18/78; “Jonestown & the CIA, Daily World, 6/23/81; NYT, 12/3,8/78 (Lloyd Barker collusion), 12/7,8,24/78 (Deputy Prime Minister Reid’s role), 12/25/78 (U.S. attempts to discredit coroner’s jury). 

39. Hold Hands, p. 229; SFE, 11/22/78 ($1 million), or see NYT, 12/8/78 ($2.5 million at site); WP, 11/28/78 (cash, wallets, gold); NYT, 12/12/78 (visit to site by Burnham’s party official). 

40. Journey to Nowhere, p. 58,117 (Ptolemy Reid cover-up), see also footnote 38Daily World, 10/23/80 (Cheddi Jagan interview); Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/28/78 (1/23/79); NYT, 1/23/79 (“Templegate”); NYT, 11/20,25/78 (Ridley body counts, 408 to 708), and see footnote 33NYT, 11/26, 12/6,11,24/78 and 2/11,5/16/79 (Guyana’s collusion) and 12/3/78 (Burnham). 

41. White Night, p. 225 (C-131s), NYT, 11/24/78 (equipment lists). 

42. White Night, p. 228 (identity strip), and Children of Jonestown, p. 196 (medical tags); Hold Hands, p. 59 (tags visible in photo). 

43. Hold Hands, p. 200 and White Night, p. 224 (Vietnam “looked like Ton San Nhut”); White Night, p. 224 (planes carried 557 caskets). 

44. Hold Hands, pp. 200-1 (182 arrive last day); White Night, pp. 226, 231 (Maj. Hickman, “six days,” first bodies arrive Dover 11/28); NYT, 11/24,26/78 (airlift details)

45. Hold Hands, p. 204; White Night, pp. 228-31 (description, “These were the worst”).

46. Hold Hands, p. 201 (182 last day, 17 identified); White Night, p. 226 (Dover site), 227 (174 identified by Guyanese), 231 (183 in 82 caskets); NYT, 11/30/78 (Dover, map), 11/21/78 (50 U.S. experts sent), 12/1/78 (46 identified). 

47. Hold Hands, p. 204 (Jones cremated), and see footnote 8

48. Hold Hands, p. 203 (families not permitted to see remains), and personal interviews; Baltimore Sun, 12/28/78 (only 259 claimed by families); NYT, 12/22/78, 1/8,24/79, 2/17/78, 3/31/79, 4/18/79 (Dover body counts 675 to 547) and 4/26. 

49. Strongest Poison, pp. 182-9; NYT, 12/21/78, and 1/10/79 (New Jersey says cremation illegal, censures six doctors); NYT, 11/30/79 (Delaware legal problems). 

50. “Medical Examiners Find Failings by Government on Cult Bodies,” NYT, 12/3/78; Rescue Mission Report, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Special Operations Review (GPO, 1980); Delta Force, Charles Beckwith (Harcourt Brace & Jovanovich, 1983). 

51. White Night, pp. 228-9 (no autopsies, death certificates in Guyana); NYT, 12/12/78 (Dr. Sturmer, National Assoc. of Med. Examiners);NYT, 12/3/78 (other medical examiners complain, “legally dubious method”); NYT, 12/16/78 (Sturmer again), 12/4/78 (embalmed) andfootnote 8 (cremations). 

52. Hold Hands, p. 203 and American Funeral Director, Jan. 1979; NYT, 12/1,2/78 (FBI fingerprint 911, or 700, and identify 255). 

53. Children of Jonestown, p. 197; Hold Hands, p. 204; Strongest Poison, pp. 182-89; NYT, 12/3,18/79 (quotes), 12/13,16,17,19/78 (autopsies, complaints), 12/25/78 (“few facts”), and footnote 37 (Mootoo’s work unknown). 

54. Raven, p. 527; Hold Hands, pp. 32 (photo), 53-4, and WP, 11/21/78 (diagram); NYT, 11/21/78 (illus.). 

55. White Night, p. 197; Raven, p. 533; Strongest Poison, p. 131; Children of Jonestown, pp. 168-70; NYT, 2/20/79 (not guilty plea). 

56. Ibid. – Raven.

57. White Night, p. 197, Raven, p. 525ff (ambush described); Hold Hands, p. 256 (Layton’s “dumb stare”), and LAT, 11/28/79 (Layton as “robot”); Journey to Nowhere, pp. 96-98 (Beikman in court “staring”); NYT, 12/15/78 (Layton insanity defense), 12/21/78 (Layton “responsible”). 

58. White Night, p. 197. 

59. WP, 11/21/78 (Laytons’ role, Jones’ quote); Boston Globe, “Killers Hunted,” 11/21/78; SFE, 11/22/78 (7 involved); NYT, 11/20/78 and 12/18/78 (lists of dead), 11/21/78 and 12/21/78 (Kice named, Joe Wilson gave Ryan gun at ambush), 11/29/78 and 12/9/78 (claim all dead, 8 warrants dropped), 12/21/78 (survivors scared to fly with “others”), 11/22 and 12/20/78 (Stephan Jones, Tim Carter, Michael Prokes arrested or charged with murders), 11/22,25/78 and 12/15,17/78 (Cobb, Rhodes, Moore, Clayton, named survivors), 12/6/78 (3 escape to Caracas & Miami before massacre).Who Killed Ryan? NYT, 11/22/78 (FBI investigates “conspiracy”), 12/28/78 (Tim Jones takes 5th amendment on Ryan shooting). 

60. Raven, p. 573 (elite squad), Hold Hands, p. 145; Newsweek, 12/4/78; Daily World, 6/23/81 (Holsinger). 

61. “Grim Report,” Kilduff, SFC, 6/15/78 (guards, abuse); Newsweek, 12/4/78 (different food, treatment); LAT, 11/28/78 (Debbie Layton Blakey, “upper middle-class whites”). 

62. White Night, p. 139; Raven, p. 403 (Cudjoe); and Raven, p. 241 (obeyed orders).

63. Chicago Defender, cited in Black Panther News, 12/30/78 (UNITA recruits for Africa); “Ryan Murder Suspect Resembles Robot,” Hall, LAT, 11/26/78 (programmed), NYT, 11/30/78 (survivors had special privileges). 

64. Hold Hands, p. 150; Strongest Poison, p. 85 (% women); “Questions Linger,” Oakland Times, 12/9/78 (% Blacks); NYT, 11/20/78, 12/18/78 (death lists). 

65. WP, 12/9/78 (FBI claims killers among dead), see footnotes 1323 (missing people); LAT, 11/25/78 (Stanley Clayton, survivor, “hundreds were slain,” “forced to die”); NYT, 12/6/78 (3 escape), 12/4/78 (Pan Am won’t fly without armed guard), 1/29/74, (“cheers” heard), 12/23/78 (“persons unknown”). 

66. Assassination of Leo J. Ryan, p. 35; Raven, pp. 572-3; Hold Hands, p.254 (“hit squad”); White Night, p. 224 (rumors at site); Journey to Nowhere, p. 148 (“basketball team”); LAT, 12/18/78, NYT, 12/1,4/78 (fears in U.S.), NYT, 12/4/78 (SF police guard Temple, “at a loss”), 12/23/78 (radio orders to kill relatives, Jonestown to San Francisco day of massacre, FBI). 

67. Raven (Prokes & Tim Carter), see footnote 59, and NYT, 12/12/78 (Carter arrested with pistols). 

68. Hold Hands, p. 30. 

69. NYT, 11/22,23/78 (rumors, “master plan,” Lane), 11/29 and 12/1/78 (FBI says “serious,” Secret Service investigates), 12/11,23/78 (Buford testifies). 

70. AP, May 19, 1979 (wrongly attributed to Cong. staff investigator George Berdes). 

71. “Suicide Carnage,” Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78 (“write the story”); Hold Hands, pp. 127, 221 (Lane, Garry lawyers for People’s Temple); NYT, 11/23/78 (Garry once called Jonestown “paradise,” says Jones “lost reason”); NYT, 11/21/78 (picked up in jungle by Guyanese troops).

72. Raven, p. 572 (survivors); Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/23/78 (32 captured by Guyanese); NYT, 11/30, 12/3,7,30/78 (reports of returning groups, totalling 30, more remain). 

73. Raven, p. 575; “Fateful Prophecy is Fulfilled,” Newsweek, 3/10/80; “Mills Family Murders: Could it be Jim Jones’ Last Revenge?” People, 3/17/78. 

74. Hold Hands, pp. 130-31, 254 (link of Jones to Moscone and Milk); The Mayor of Castro Street, Randy Shilts (St. Martin’s, 1982); NYT, 1/17, 2/19, 4/24, 5/18, 5/22, 7/4/79 (Dan White arrest, trial, conviction, sentence); NYT, 5/22/79 (gay riot in response), 5/22/79 (White biography); NYT, 11/27 (murder), 12/6 (“no link”), 12/18/78 (illegal votes for Moscone); “The Milk/Moscone Case Reviewed,” Paul Krassner,Nation, 1/14/84. 

75. No note provided in original text. 

76. Los Angeles Herald, 2/12/84. 

77. Hold Hands, pp. 61,68 (KKK, Jones’s racism); NYT, 11/26/78 (biography). 

78. Hold Hands, pp. 62-3.

79. Personal interviews, Richmond, Indiana, 1981. Raven, p. 26 (Jones’ boyhood); Hidden Terrors, A.J. Langguth (Pantheon, 1978) (Mitrione). 

80. Hold Hands, pp. 63-4 (calling as minister), 66, 70 (ordained as minister); NYT, 11/22,29/79, 3/13/79 (Disciples of Christ).

81. Hold Hands, pp. 62, 64. 

82. Hold Hands, pp. 66, 166 (monkey business); White Night, pp. 9-10 (Indiana U. link). 

83. Hold Hands, p. 65 (faith healer); Hidden Terrors, pp. 17, 41 (chief of police).

84. Hold Hands, pp. 68, 102 (cure cancer), 75, 76, 103 (chicken livers); Six Years, p. 86ff (photos). 

85. No note supplied in original text. 

86. Suicide Cult, pp. 181-2. 

87. White Night, p.236; Journey to Nowhere, pp. 95, 98 (Burnham’s people defend him), NYT, 11/21 (murders), 11/26, 12/1,5,14/78 (charges and trials), 12/19/78 and 2/3/79 (Stephan Jones “confesses” and “retracts”), 11/28/78 (charged with Katsaris). 

88. Hidden Terrors, p. 42; Who’s Who in the CIA, Julius Mader (E. Berlin, 1968). 

89. Suicide Cult, p. 21; WP, 11/22/78. 

90. Hold Hands, p. 65; NYT, 3/25/79 (also recruiting black families in Cuba, 1960). 

91. “Jones’ Mysterious Brazil Stay,” San Jose Mercury, 11/78. 

92. San Jose Mercury, 11/78; “Penthouse Interview: Stephan Jones,” Penthouse, 4/79.

93. Hidden Terrors, pp. 63, 117, 249 (Mitrione in Brazil ’62-’67). 

94. Ibid., pp. 139-40 (reference to Who’s Who in CIA); NYT, 6/11,29/79 (Uruguay).

95. See it! 

96. Journey to Nowhere, p. 247; Hold Hands, p. 171 (paid “pile of money,” “$5,000 to have sex with Ambassador’s wife” — cover story for payoff); Suicide Cult, p. 42 (money to travel around U.S. on return).

97. “Bishop’s Report Names CIA,” WP, 2/16/85; “Private Groups . . . Millions Raised,” WP, 12/10/84; “Americares Foundation — Central America Gets Private Aid,” WP, 2/27/85 (Knights of Malta, CIA’s Casey, Brezezinsky, Haig, funnel donations for “medicine” through Sterling Drugs, linked to I.G. Farben.). 

98. Journey to Nowhere, p. 251. 

99. “Guyana Tragedy Points to a Need for Better Care and Protection of Guardianship Children,” Comptroller General Report (GPO, 1980);NYT, 1/25/79 (150 “foster children” in Ukiah), 2/14/79 (Mendocino agency says “none placed”), 2/17/79 (Sen. Cranston says 17 Ukiah children among dead). 

100. “World Vision, Go Home,” L. Lee, Christian Century, 5/16/79; “In the Spirit of Jimmy Jones,” J. Fogarty, Akwesasne Notes, Winter, 1982;NYT, 2/26,4/4,11/16/75 and 12/25/79 (W.V. Cambodia), 4/2-5/75 and 6/30/79 (Vietnam work). 

101. Journey to Nowhere, p. 220; “Jim Jones a Republican,” LAT, 12/17/78 (John Birch); Daily World, 6/23/81 (Holsinger comments), and NYT, 11/24/78 (“helpful” reputation). 

102. “Jim Jones was a Republican for 6 Years,” LAT, 12/17/78; Hold Hands, p. 70 (Jones held 15% vote Mendocino County).

103. Hold Hands, p. 93. 

104. Hold Hands, p. 84; NYT, 11/21/78 (Tim Stoen joins, legal advisor). 

105. Hold Hands, p. 95 (Debbie Layton Blakey); In My Father’s House (Layton’s stories); Strongest Poison (Terry Buford), NYT, 12/4/78 (Layton family, 6 join). 

106. Six Years, p. 86ff (photos); NYT, 11/22-24/78 (biography), 11/29/78 (college $).

107. Strongest Poison, p. 85; Philadelphia Inquirer, 11/19/78.

108. Hold Hands, p. 138 (family joins); “Cult Got Assets from Layton,” LAT, 11/26/78; “Family Tragedy,” NYT, 12/4/78 (aristocratic).

109. Washington Post, 1/22/78 (27,000 acres leased, 1974); Daily World, 6/23/81 ($600,000). 

110. In My Father’s House, pp. 18-19.

111. Hold Hands, pp. 94, 127-8; NYT, 12/16-17/79 (Swiss bank accounts). 

112. Hold Hands, p. 96; Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78; NYT, 11/21/78 (list), 12/5/78 (Stoen close to D.A. Hunter, later investigated Temple). 

113. “Statement by Joe Holsinger,” 5/23/80, citing Strongest Poison (Chapter 5), (Jones as “patriotic American”); LAT, 12/17/78; NYT, 12/1/78 (Reagan says Jones “close to Democrats”). 

114. Hold Hands, pp. 73-75, 79, 176.

115. Hold Hands, pp. 182-3; Journey to Nowhere, pp. 223-4, WP, 11/22/78 (Housing Commission); “DA Accuses Deputy Stoen,” SFE, 1/21/79;WP, 11/22/78; Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78 (election and voter fraud); NYT, 12/18,20/78 (illegal Moscone votes).

116. Journey to Nowhere, p. 279 (welfare appointments); NYT, 12/18/79 (half of dead on Calif. Welfare sometime, 10% active, 51 fraud). 

117. Hold Hands, p. 132 (Angela Davis), 213 and NYT, 11/23/78 (Roslyn Carter), NYT, 11/21/78 (list), also WP, 11/20/78 and Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78.

118. Age of Surveillance, Frank Donner (Random House, 1980); Spying on Americans, Athan Theoharis (Temple University Press, 1978; “Garden Plot and SWAT: U.S. Police as New Action Army,” Counterspy, Winter, 1976. 

119. Secret Agenda, Jim Hougan (Random House, 1984), pp. 99, 102; Final Report, Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities (GPO, 1974), pp. 3-7 and Hearings, Vol. 3, pp. 1319-37 and-Vol. 4, pp. 1453-64 (describes Houston plan); The Whole Truth: The Watergate Conspiracy, Sam Ervin (Random House, 1980); “A New Watergate Revelation: The White House Death Squads,” Johnathan Marshall, Inquiry, 3/5/79. 

120. COINTELPRO, Nelson Blackstock (Vintage, 1976); The FBI and Martin Luther King: From SOLO to Memphis, David Garrow (Norton, 1981); Assassination of Malcolm X, George Breiterman (Pathfinder Press, 1976); also see on King harassment: Nation, 6/17/78,Newsweek, 9/28/81, and NYT, 3/17/75. Also browse NYT, 11/19-23/75 and 12/3-24/75.

121. “Remembering Ed Meese: From the Free Speech Movement to Operation Garden Plot,” Johan Carlisle, S.F. Bay Guardian, 4/4/84; “Officer Ed Meese,” Jeff Stein, New Republic, 10/7/81; “Ed Meese,” Rebel, 12/13/84, Alex Dubro; “Bringing the War Home,” Ron Ridenhour, New Times, 11/28/75. 

122. “Garden Plot & SWAT,” Counterspy, Winter, 1976. 

123. “Why Civil Libertarians are Leery of Ed Meese,” Oakland Tribune, 2/13/84. 

124. “Jim Jones: The Seduction of San Francisco,” J. Kasindorf, New West, 12/18/78; “Churchmen Hunt Clues on Cult’s Lure for Blacks,” H. Soles, Christianity Today, 3/23/79; “An Interpretation of People’s Temple and Jim Jones,” Journal Interdenom. Theol. Ctr., Fall 1979; “Cuname, Curare & Cool Aid: The Politics that Spawned and Nurtured Jonestown,” George Jackson (self-published, 1984).

125. Hold Hands, p. 87. 

126. Hold Hands, pp. 88, 182-3.

127. Hold Hands, pp. 84, 100-1; “Jones Linked to Extortion,” LAT, 11/25/78; NYT, 12/3/78. 

128. Hold Hands, pp. 96, 172, 210-11. 

129. “Seven Mysterious Deaths,” Kathy Hunter, Ukiah Press-Democrat

130. LAT, 11/25/78; NYT, 11/21/78 (Jones threatens to kill defectors). 

131. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 49-50, 67, 102. 

132. Assassination of Leo J. Ryan, p. 316 (Debbie Layton affidavit); LAT, 11/18/78; NYT, 11/20; 12/5/78 (White Nights). 

133. Hold Hands, pp. 71-2, 180; NYT, 11/21,28/78 and 12/7/78 (abuse complaints, ignored). 

134. “Inside People’s Temple,” Kilduff, New West, 8/1/77; “Jim Jones: The Making of a Madman,” Phil Tracy, New West, 12/18/78; LAT, 12/8/78. 

135. Hold Hands, pp. 16, 130, 136-7; “Scared Too Long,” SFE, 11/13/77 (Houston death); NYT, 11/21/78. 

136. Hold Hands, p. 127, 133.

137. Hold Hands, p. 136 (against advice); NYT, 11/21/78 (Speiers makes out will). 

138. Personal interviews with Joe Holsinger, Ryan’s aide, 1980; NYT, 11/21/78, 12/16/78 (panic). 

139. Hold Hands, pp. 87-8, 100. 

140. White Night, p. 226; Hold Hands, p. 232, SFC, 11/23/78 (“doubles”). 

141. The Second Oswald, Popkin (Berkeley, 1968). 

142. See footnote 34.

143. White Night, p. 227 (autopsy, identification); Hold Hands, p. 262 (photo); “New Mystery: Is Jones Dead?” NY Daily News, 11/23/78. 

144. NYT, 11/24/78 (fingerprints). 

145. Hold Hands, pp. 77, 83; In My Father’s House, pp. 115-6. 

146. “Jungle Geopolitics in Guyana: How a Communist Utopia that Ended in a Massacre Came to be Sited,” American Journal of Economics & Sociology, 4/81. 

147. Guyana Massacre (photo of Garry at Temple). 

148. SFE, 1/9/79. Also see my “Jonestown Banks” piece. 

149. Journey to Nowhere, p. 126. 

150. “James G. McDonald: High Commissioner for Refugees, 1933-35,” Werner Lib. Bull. #43-44; “Refugee Immigration: Truman Directive,”Prologue, Spring 1981; Caribbean Review, Fall 1981. 

151. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 117-18 (interior development); “Guyana’s National Service Program,” Journal of Administration Overseas, 1/76;Caribbean Review, Fall 1981, 1982. 

152. “Mineral Resources Map,” Area Handbook for Guyana, State Department (GPO, 1969); White Night, p. 238 (Burnham); Hold Hands, p. 149. 

153. White Night, p. 238 (Burnham on importing labor, “exploit the exploitable”). 

154. Hold Hands, p. 144 (Embassy visits since 1973); “Consulate Officers: Babysitters,” NYT, 11/29/78 and NYT, 12/6,11,24/78 (Guyana denies links), but see 5/16/79 (House Report charges collusion), and 12/5/78; 5/4,16/79 (House report critical of role of U.S. Embassy). 

155. Hold Hands, p. 146. 

156. “Brother Forced To Go To Jonestown,” LAT, 11/27/78 (kill whole family threat); Personal interview with Guyanese present, 1980 (bound and gagged). 

157. Journey to Nowhere, p. 107, (guards, “state within a state”); Hold Hands, p. 127 (coercion by armed guards, Yolanda Crawford), personal interview with Guyanese living within 5 miles of site, 1981. 

158. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 73-4 (adoption, 7 Guyanese children among dead); Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/23/78. 

159. Hold Hands, p. 39 (Gerry Parks), 156 (Blakey); “Life in Jonestown,” Newsweek, 12/4/78; “Jonestown,” Michael Novak, AEI Reprint #94, 3/79 (work and food). 

160. Holsinger Statement, 5/23/80, NYT, 11/23/78 (“preoccupied with”). 

161. Hold Hands, pp. 50-51 (Tim Bogue), 157-63, 170-1 (public rape); “People’s Temple in Guyana is a Prison,” Santa Rosa Press Democrat, 4/12/78; Newsweek, 12/4/78 (special treatment); SFC, 6/15/78; Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78; NYT, 11/20/78 (slaves, torture), 12/4/78 (denials).

162. No entry supplied in original manuscript. 

163. Trading with the Enemy, Charles Higham (Dell, 1983), p. 23 (Schacht role in war); NYT, 10/11/79 (Auschwitz plan).

164. Miami Herald, 3/27/79 (set up accounts); LAT 11/18/79, and see my “Jonestown Banks“); NYT, 11/21,23,28,29/78; 12/2,3,8,16,20/78 (millions described in various places); NYT, 1/13/79 (IRS says back taxes would be millions), 12/3/78 ($2 million real estate). 

165. LAT, 1/5/78; SFC, 1/9/79, and see my “Jonestown Banks” again; NYT, 8/3/79 (puts Panama and Venezuela accounts at $15 million plus),NYT, 1/24/79 (receivership), 12/19/78 and 2/11; 10/11/79 (U.S. and Guyanese government and relatives claim it). 

166. In My Father’s House, pp. 18, 19. 

167. Assassination, pp. 775-6, (199 SSA beneficiaries at site), Hold Hands, pp. 78, 139; NYT, 11/22/78 (200 get $40,000/month), and 2/14/79 (Senate investigation). If the average check is $200 a month, how do 199 people equal $65,000? 

168. NYT, 11/21/78 and 12/10/78 (guns on site don’t match cartridges); NYT, 12/3178 (smuggling operations). 

169. Area Handbookop cit., see footnote 152

170. Operation Mind Control, Walter Bowart (Dell, 1978); The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, John Marks (Times Books, 1978); “Project MK-ULTRA: CIA Program of Research in Behavior Modification,” Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Hearings, 8/3/77 (GPO, 1977);WP, “MK-ULTRA” (series), summer/fall 1977; NYT, 1/30/79 (overview of MK-ULTRA). 

171. Individual Rights and the Federal Role in Behavior Modification, Senate Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights (GPO, 1974); NYT, 1/25/79 (children), 2/7,10/79 (blacks), Philadelphia Inquirer, 11/26/79 (prison). 

172. The Mind Manipulators, Scheflin & Opton (Grosset & Dunlap, 1978); The Mind Stealers: Psychosurgery and Mind Control, S. Chavkin (Houghton-Mifflin, 1978); “Proposal for the Center for Reduction of Life-Threatening Behavior,” J. West, 9/l/78; Correspondence, Dr J. Stubblebine, Calif. Director of Health to Dr. Louis J. West, 1/22/73 (reprinted in Individual Rights, above); “Nike Nonsense: Army Offers Unused Nike Bases to UCLA Violence Center,” Madness Network News, 2/19/74; Mind Stealers, p. 91 (Drs. Mark, Ervin), and NYT, 2/7,10/79 (electrodes); LAT, 11/26/78 (Dr. West writes “psycho-autopsy” of Jonestown.) 

173. NYT, 11/28/78 (criminal rehab program at Jonestown), and 1/25/79 (children); see also footnotes 215964 (race, sex, age composition of dead). 

174. Raven, p. 347. Holdinger Statement, 5,23/80; NYT, 11/23/78 (medical records).

175. Control of Candy Jones, Donald Bain (Playboy Press, 1979); “The CIA’s Electric Kool Aid Acid Test,” Tad Szulc, Psychology Today, 11/77. See also footnotes 170172 (books). 

176. Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized Society, José M. Delgado (Harper & Row, 1969); Psychotechnology: Electronic Control of Mind & Behavior, Robert L. Schwitzgebel (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1972). 

177. Hold Hands, p. 17; Children of Jonestown, p. 16 (population of Georgetown, drugs); “Jones Community Found Stocked with Drugs to Control the Mind,” NYT, 12/29/78. 

178. Children of Jonestown, p. 16; NYT, 12/29/78 (“used to control”). 

179. Children of Jonestown, p. 16 (thorazine); NYT, 12/29/78 (drugs found); Daily World, 6/23/81 (Holsinger). 

180. Hold Hands, p. 12. 

181. Hold Hands, p. 190-3 (brainwash methods); Daily World, 6/23/81 (Holsinger). 

182. Hold Hands, p. 257 (Luckhoo, lawyer for Temple); White Night, pp. 257-8 (Burnham “conversion”), Sir Lionel, Fred Archer (Gift Publications, 1980) (Luckhoo biography); NYT, 12/15/79 (Luckhoo has gotten 299 murder acquittals). 

183. “In the Spirit of Jimmy Jones,” Akwesasne Notes, Winter, 1982.

184. “Full Gospel Businessmen Dine with Kings,” L.A. Herald, 1/29/85; “Annual White House Prayer Breakfast,” National Public Radio, 2/1/85 (mysterious fellowship). 

185. “Hundreds Were Slain Survivor Says,” LAT, 11/25/78; NYT, 12/6/78 (suicide plans); NYT, 11/21/78 and 12/10/78 (secrecy, panic, reaction to press coming). 

186. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 56-7, 141; NYT, 11/23/78 (Freed calls Jones “Devil”). 

187. Newsweek, 12/4/79; WP, 11/19/78 and ff, NYT, 11/20, 12/3/78, 10/11/79; Time, 12/4/78; “Nightmare in Jonestown” (maps). 

188. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 63-4; “Hill Rules Cult with Iron Fist,” Cleveland Plain Dealer, 12/4/78; NYT, 12/4,5/78. 

189. Daily World, 6/23/81, 10/23/80 (Holsinger and Cheddi Jagan); “Hill Rules,” CPD, 12/4/78 (Hill admits); NYT, 12/19/78 (guns missing at site); Personal interview with Jagan, 1981 (guns, shoes).

190. “Hill Rules,” CPD, 12/4/78; CBS, “60 Minutes,” 11/18/80 (Hill interviewed). 

191. “West German Concentration Camp in Chile,” Konrad Ege, Counterspy, 12/78. 

192. Death in Washington, Don Freed (Lawrence Hill, 1980) (Townley Welch); Aftermath, Lasislas Farago (Avon Press, 1974) (Bormann, Mengele); NYT, 11/7/84 (Pisagua camp). 

193. Six Years, p. 122. 

194. The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia, Alfred McCoy (Harper & Row, 1974); “Jonestown Resettlement Plan,” SFE, 8/18/80. 

195. Correspondence, EPICA, 4/2/80 (Dominca plan); NYT, 4/11, 5/6, 6/12/79 (complicated intermesh of Sam Brown, Director of Peace Corps who invented Jamaica Plan, Dr. Peter Bourne and his lover Mary King, appointed Deputy Director of Action programs, the scandal of White House Drug Abuse advisor Bourne writing fake prescriptions for Carter aide Ellen Metesky, later Peace Corps director herself, and the resignation of the first Black Peace Corps administrator, Dr. Carolyn Payton (formerly Caribbean Desk there) over disagreements with Brown on the Jamaican plans); “The Jamaican Experiment,” Atlantic Monthly, 9/83 (Reagan’s current plans). 

196. American Labor & U.S. Foreign Policy, Ron Radosh, p. 393 (cites other sources); Journey to Nowhere, p. 21 (Burnham, CIA role, “right wing”); White Night, ($1 million destabilization plan); “How the CIA Got Rid of Jagan,” Neal Sheehy, London Sunday Times, 2/23/67. 

197. White Night, p. 257; “CIA Agent Witnessed Jonestown Mass Suicide,” San Mateo Times, 12/14/79. 

198. White Night, p. 256; Who’s Who in the CIA, Julius Mader (E. Berlin, 1968); Dirty Work: CIA in Europe, Lou Wolff (Lyle Stuart, 1978);Raven, p. 590, note 66 (for Dwyer’s non-denial). 

199. Hold Hands, p. 29, 53; Raven, p. 534; Holsinger Statement, 5/23/80 (quote); “Don’t Be Afraid to Die,” Newsweek, 3/26/79; NYT, 3/15/79 (transcripts censor it); NYT, 11/19/79 (Dwyer at ambush); NYT, 12/7,9/78 (curious “discovery,” delay).

200. Daily World, 6/23/81 (Holsinger); NYT, 11/25/78 (biography). 

201. “Ryan’s Ready,” and “People’s Temple,” Reiterman, SFE, 11/17/78; “Angry Meeting in Guyana,” Javers, SFC, 11/17/78. 

202. Assassination of Leo J. Ryan, p. 9 (quote); Daily World, 6/23/81; NYT, 12/5,6,13/78 (role), 12/1/78 (cover-up with Blakey), 12/8/78 (biography). 

203. Information Services Company, 7/80 (quote); Daily World, 6/23/81 (“sensitive Caribbean listening post,” citing White Night). 

204. Daily World, 6/23/81 (Holsinger). 

205. “Performance of Department of State and American Embassy in Guyana in the People’s Temple Case,” Dept. of State (GPO, 1979); Daily World, 6/23/78 (Holsinger blames McCoy); Assassination of Leo Ryan, pp. 699-704 (role); NYT, 11/30/78, 12/5/78, 5/4,16/79 (Embassy criticisms); NYT, 11/20-22/78 (gave Ryan no warning); 12/2,4-6/78 (hostile to Ryan, sent FOIA to Jones). 

206. Personal interview with Holsinger, 1980. 

207. CIA: A Bibliography, R. Goehlert (Vance, 1980); Gehlen: Spy of the Century, Edward Spiro (Random House, 197 1); The Pledge Betrayed, Tom Bower (Doubleday, 1982); The Belarus Secret, John Loftus (Knopf, 1982); Klaus Barbie: Butcher of Lyons, Tom Bower (Pantheon, 1984); Quiet Neighbors, Allan Ryan (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1984); The Fourth Reich, Magnus Linklater (Hodder & Stroughton, 1984);Nazi Legacy, Magnus Linklater (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1985); Secrets of the SS, Glenn Infield (Stein & Day, 1982); Skorzeny: Hitler’s Commando, Glenn Infield (St. Martin’s, 1981); “The Nazi Connection to the John F. Kennedy Assassination,” Mae Brussell, Rebel, 1982. 

208. In My Father’s House, (Dugway chapter); “Family Tragedy,” NYT, 12/4/78; Holsinger Statement, 5/23/80; Who’s Who (Marquis, 1980) (Dr. Layton). 

209. In My Father’s House, pp. 18, 19; The Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farben, Joseph Borkin (Free Press, 1978); The Sanctity of I.G. Farben’s Spy Nests, Howard Armbruster (self-published, 1956); Treason’s Peace, Howard Armbruster (1947); Trading with the Enemyop cit.footnote 163

210. “Family Tragedy: Hitler’s Germany to Jones Cult,” Lindsey, NYT, 12/4/78. 

211. NYT, 12/4/78 (met in England), see footnote 209 (Farben link); “Solvay et Cie Reorganizes U.S. Interests,” Houston Post, 11/29/74.

212. Holsinger Statement, 5/23/80. 

213. Philadelphia Inquirer, 11/22/78. 

214. White Night, p. 256 (cites report), see footnote 63

215. White Night, p. 252 (minister); Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78 (Maria says CIA). 

216. Assassination of Leo Ryan, p. 777 (lawyer role), see footnote 195 also, NYT, 12/4/78. 

217. Public Eye, Vol. 1, #1, 1975. Proceedings, First Conference, WACL, 9125-9167 (Taipei, R.O.C., 1967). 

218. “Jones Disciple Goes to Court Tuesday,” Santa Cruz Sentinel, 6/19/81 (CIA link alleged at Layton trial).

219. White Night, pp. 2 10-11 (note), SFE, 2/8/79 ($ to USSR), NYT, 11/28/78 (suitcase); NYT, 11/28, 12/1,23/78 (details on her strange “suicide-murder”), NYT, 12/18/78 (letter), and 11/28, 12/18/78 (Prokes & Carter identified).

220. Nation, 3/26/79; “Jones Aide Dies After Shooting Himself,” Baltimore Sun, 3/15/79,12/8/78 ($2.5 million), NYT, 3/14/78 and Strongest Poison (FBI link).

221. Hold Hands, p. 165 (move to USSR), SFC, 1/21/79 (details of rumor), NYT, 11/27,28/78, 12/10/78, 1/1/79 (more details, quotes, tapes). 

222. White Night, p. 229 (Guyana recovers $); NYT, 12/8 ($2.5 mil); NYT, 11/18, 12/19/78 (Soviets, $39,000, refusal), and see NYT, 11/28; 12/3,10,18-20/78; and 1/1,2,9/79 (for all the smarmy details). 

223. SFE, 1/9/79, and my “Jonestown Banks“. 

224. God’s Banker, DiFonzi (Calvi), NYT, 6/31/82 (Panama story); NYT, 12/5/78 (Lane and Buford knew names on accounts), and see “Jonestown Banks” (disappears). 

225. Time, 7/26/82. 

226. Children of Jonestown, pp. 196-7 (orders from above). 

227. “Close Look at Carter’s Radical Fringe,” Human Events, 11/11/78 (right wing view); Migration & Development in the Caribbean, Robert Pastor (Westview Press, 1985). 

228. Hold Hands, p. 256; NYT, 11/21/78 (biography); also Strongest Poison (interviews). 

229. White Night, p. 224 (“fearless”), NYT, 11/21/78 (biography). 

230. “The Case Against Mark Lane,” Brill, Esquire, 2/13/79; “Mark Lane: The Left’s Leading Hearse Chaser,” Katz, Mother Jones, 8/79; “People’s Temple Colony Harassed,” SFE, 10/4/78 (Lane charges CIA attack); NYT, 11/30/78 (Anthony Lewis critique); 12/5,7,16,29/78 (rumors and denials that Lane and Buford drained Swiss bank accounts), 2/4/79 (contradictory remarks), 2/4, 4/4, 9/21/79 (more charges, fake identity, theft), see Strongest Poison for comparison. 

231. Code Name Zorro, Lane & Gregory (Prentice-Hall, 1977). 

232. Hold Hands, p. 222; NYT, 6/14/78 (Lane as Ray’s attorney); Investigation of the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA), Hearings, Vols. 1-9 (GPO, 1979); NYT, 8/8,16/78 (Lane’s view of HSCA, conspiracy against him), and Strongest Poison

233. “Ray’s Breakout,” Time, 6/23/77. 

234. “Tennessee Clemency Selling Scheme,” Corrections, 6/79; “A Federal-State Confrontation,” National Law Journal, 5/11/81. 

235. NYT, 1/6,20/79 (Swearingen, documents), see also 1/16-18,27/79 Swearingen); Code Name Zorroop cit.; NYT, 1/20/79 (Swearingen, Chicago FBI to 1971); “Investigating the FBI,” Policy Review, #18, Fall, 1981; David Martin “Breitel Report: New Light on FBI Use of Informants,” First Principles, 10/80; “Prying Informants Files Loose from the Hands of Attorney General — SWP v. Atty. General of U.S.,”Howard Law Journal, Vol. 22, #4, 1979. 

236. Personal call, 1978

237. Strongest Poison, p. 402.

238. Code Name Zorro, pp. 165, 204-5. 

239. Ibid., p. 165. 

240. Ibid., Let the Trumpet Sound: The Life of Martin Luther King, Oates (Mentor, 1982), p. 473. 

241. Code Name Zorro, p. 168. 

242. Ibid., pp. 161-4; Let the Trumpet Sound, p. 476. 

243. Code Name Zorro, pp. 165-70. 

244. Ibid., pp. 165-8, 205. 

245. Ibid., pp. 168-70. 

246. NYT, 12/22/78; 1/1/79 (Buford at Lane’s home); Strongest Poison, p. 402 (unconvincing denial), and see p. 1114 (“our house in Memphis”).

247. “Memo Discusses Smuggling Witness to Guyana,” Horrock, NYT, 12/8/78; Strongest Poison, p. 144 (testimony to HSCA). 

248. “Memo Discussing Smuggling,” op. cit., footnote 247

249. “Seven Mysterious Deaths,” op cit.footnote 129

250. Hold Hands, pp. 18, 223; Assassination of Leo Ryan, pp. 3, 52-3 (text); Journey to Nowhere, p. 163 (Lane quote); NYT, 12/8/78 (discouraging Ryan). 

251. Hold Hands, p. 222; “Ryan’s Ready,” Reiterman, SFE, 11/17/78. 

252. Hold Hands, pp. 212-3, 223 (sandwiches); NYT, 12/8178; 1/12/79 (no warning).

253. Hold Hands, pp. 43, 44; Strongest Poison, p. 175 (underwear); WP, 11/21/78.

254. WP, 11/21/78.

255. Hold Hands, pp. 212-3, 222, citing Anthony Lewis in NYT

256. No note is given in the original manuscript. 

257. Let the Trumpet Sound, p. 470 (brother, A.D. King with MLK day of death); NYT, 7/1/74 (“accidental drowning” death of A.D. King);Trumpet, pp. 472-3 (wound described), also Robert Cutler analysis, Grassy Knoll Gazette, 1983; NYT, 10/25/74 (Dr. Herbert MacDonnell, “no way” from window), 8/18/78 (Dr. Michael Baden to HSCA, “shot from below”). 

258. NYT, 2/14/74 (Ray gets rehearing); NYT, 7/1/74 (Alberta King murdered 6/30/74); “Ray’s Day in Court,” Newsweek, 11/4/74; NYT, 10/18/74 (Ray v. Rose reheard); “Did James Earl Ray Slay the Dreamer Alone?” Writer’s Digest, 9/74. 

259. NYT, 10/30/74, “Tennessee Effort to Block Testimony Overturned.” 

260. “Another King Killed,” NYT Magazine, 6/8/74; “Third King Tragedy,” Time, 7/15/74; “Murder in a Church,” Nation, 6/20/74; NYT, 6/30, 7/1,9,12/74 (Chenault biog., trial); “That Certain Smile,” Newsweek, 6/15/74; NYT, 7/1,10/74 (psychiatric exam); NYT, 9/13/74 (blows kisses, points finger “like a gun” at judge, prosecutor). 

261. NYT, 7/1-5/74 (Ohio “visitors” in Atlanta, Dayton link to ministers, legal fees paid anonymously, FBI suspicious, Justice says “no conspiracy”). 

262. Dayton Journal Herald, 7/2/74ff; NYT, 7/9/74 (“The Troop” — Steven Holinan, Walter Brooks, Ronald & Robert Scott, Ramona Catlin, Almeda Water, Harvey Cox, Jr., Marcus Wayne Chenault); NYT, 7/4,8/74 (biography of Rev. Hananiah Emmanuel Israel, or Rabbi Israel, AKA Rabbi Albert Emmanuel Washington, personal interview, Journal Herald reporters, 1974. 

263. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 63-4; “Hill Rules,” CPD, 12/4/78, footnote 188 (Hill); NYT, 12/4174 (“Black Hebrew” Chenault). 

264. NYT, 7/1,3,7,8/74 (Chenault tells Abernathy of Troop plan “to kill all Black civil rights leaders,” “religious mission partly accomplished,” and death list found in Chenault apartment: Jesse Jackson, Hosea, Cecil Williams, Martin Luther King, Sr., Ralph Abernathy, Rev. Washington (a cousin), and Fr. Divine(!), already deceased). 

265. Let the Trumpet Soundop cit., footnote 240

266. “Psyching Out the Cult’s Collective Mania,” Drs. Delgado & J West, LAT, 11/26/78; “The Appeal of the Death Trip,” Robert J. Lifton, NYT Magazine, 1/7/79; NYT, 11/22/78, Robert Lifton (“explains”), 12/1/78 (Carter quote); 12/3/78 (“never know,” Reston); 12/5/78 (Billy Graham, “Satan”). 

267. “Jonestown & the CIA: Black Genocide Operation,” Jonestown Research Project, 1981; “The Expendable People,” Committee on Racial Justice Reporter, Spring 1979; LAT, 12/18/78. 

268. Raven, p. 403; White Night, p. 39; In My Father’s House, p. 320, see “Jonestown Banks“.

269. Raven, p. 578 (ship in Caribbean); “Jonestown Banks,” p. 4, (citing McCann quote on KGO, San Francisco); NYT, 11/23/78 (“continue Temple work”).

270. Personal interview, relative of Grenadan family, 1984. 

271. “Medical Students Were in No Danger,” Peter G. Bourne, Oakland Tribune, 11/8/83. 

272. “Nomination of Director of Drug Abuse Policy Office,” Hearings, 5/13/77 (GPO, 1977); “Pipe Dreams,” P. Anderson, Washington Post Magazine, 2/14/80; NYT, 4/26/79 (White House Drug Scandal, U.N. post), see footnote 195

273. SFC, 12/10/84 (Gairy plan), see footnote 147 (Gairy/Jones link); “Blue Christmas Coming Up,” Air Force Magazine, 1/84 (precision bombing). 

274. “Bombed Grenada Hospital Gets Bedding,” WP, 9/27/84 (USAID, $1.2 million rebuild plan). 

275. Hold Hands, p. 257 (Luckhoo approached to defend); Raven, p. 576 (Layton trial); Raven, p. 571 (claims Ryan’s killers dead, names Kice, Wilson, Breidenbach, Touchette; what of others?), see footnotes 5965

276. NYT, 12/5/78 (Ryan’s mother wanted full investigation), see footnote 63NYT, 12/8,14,15,21/78; 1/4/79 (S.F. Grand Jury, delays, stonewalling, Stoen/Hunter).

277. White Night, p. 232; Raven, p. 576 ($12 mil. hidden in accounts, airlift cots); “Eerie Shoes: Missing Money,” Time, 11/18/78; “Assets Liquidated,” Christian Century, 10/21/81; “Payoff for a Massacre,” Macleans, 9/6/72; NYT, 11/21,23,28,29, 12/3,21/78 (estimates of wealth), NYT, 11/25/78 and 5/19/79 (cost of airlift, $2 to $4.4 mil.); NYT, 12/3,5,7,14/78 (Pentagon, Charles Garry, Justice Department, families claim it), 12/19/78 and 1/3,24/79 and 2/11/79 (State Department, IRS, Guyanese, court receiver claim it).

278. Hold Hands, p. 134; Raven, p. 590, note 66; Daily World, 6/23/81 (Holsinger suit); Personal interview with Holsinger, 1982 (suspects military intelligence).

279. NYT, 1/23/79 (Ryan’s children sue Temple for $1 million); Raven, p. 579; Personal interview with Holsinger, 1983; NYT, 10/11/79 (695 claims for “wrongful death,” total $1.78 billion). 

280. Philadelphia Inquirer, 4/1/81, “Hinckley Profile,” Sid Bernstein, WNET, NY, 1981; Breaking Points, Jack & Jo Ann Hinckley (Chosen Books, 1985). 

281. “Who Shot RR,” Lenny Lapon, Continuing Inquiry, 5/22/81; “The Day the President Was Shot,” Investigative Reporter, 1/82.

282. Lennon, What Happened? Beckley (Sunshine Pubs., 1981); “John Lennon’s Killer, the Nowhere Man,” C. Ungier, New York, 6/22/81. 

283. World Vision Magazine, 1983; “Final Report of Israeli Commission of Inquiry,” Journal Palestinian Studies, Spring, 1983; “Kahan Commission,” Midstream, 6-7/83; Guardian, 11/17/81. 

284. “Terrorism in Miami: Suppressing Free Speech,” Counterspy, 3-5/84; Guardian, 11/17/81. 

285. SFE, 12/18/80, op cit.footnote 194

286. Hold Hands, pp. 40, 165, 187 (photo).

287. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 234-5, Hold Hands, pp. 211-2 (FBI predict more); The Evidence of Things Not Seen, James Baldwin (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1985) (Wayne Williams, Atlanta child murders).

288. “Jonestown Massacre Recalled,” WP, 11/19/84; 10/10/84 (homeless controversy); “Political Storm Swirls Around Newcomers,” NYT, 11/3/84; WP, 10/4/84 (quote). 

289. “Oregon City an Experiment in Medical Care,” L. Busch, Amer. Med. News, 10/26/84; Eugene, Oregon Register-Guard, 11/6/84 (injections). 

290. Politics of Lying, David Wise (Random House, 1973); see Tom Davis Books catalog for many sources. 

291. 1984, George Orwell (New American Library, 1961) (The book was originally entitled 1948, not 1984.)

Tagged , , , , , , , ,

US Corporate Media Silent on Fukushima Dangers

Fukushima now radiating everyone:
‘Unspeakable’ reality

By Deborah Dupre, Human Rights Examiner / Aug. 14, 2011 / Examiner.com

Australian CBS exposes extreme Fukushima radiation human rights violations while U.S. media remains silent

Australia’s  CBS exposed the “unspeakable” realities of the Japanese catastrophe in its 60 Minutes program Sunday night during which leading nuclear scientist Dr. Michio Kaku said radiation from Fukushima will impact of all of humanity. The nuclear energy power industry violation of the right to health is apparent throughout the new Australian report.

“In fact the whole world will be exposed from the radiation from Fukushima,” Dr. Kaku told CBS reporter Liz Hayes

“We are already getting radiation from Fukushima,” Dr. Kaku said.

Just as Australia’s SBS exposed in depth the reality of the 2010 BP Gulf of Mexico catastrophe unlike any U.S. mainstream news station, Sunday, Australia’s CBS has now exposed in depth the Fukushima catastrophe. (See embedded Youtube video of the program on this page left.)

“The Fukushima crisis is far from over. The crippled nuclear power plant is still leaking; and, judging from Chernobyl, recovery will not be measured in years, more like centuries,” reported the Australian presenter Liz Hayes.

Best known in Australia for reporting on 60 Minutes, Hayes is also known as former co-host of Australia’s Todaya position she held by popular demand for a decade.

As Hayes traveled through now deserted areas of rubble, that were once houses, toward Fukushima, the silence was shattered by the beeping of deadly gamma radiation fallout 40 kilometers from the crippled nuclear power plant.

“Gamma radiation is a stronger form of radiation and will go through most things apart from lead,” warned Frank Jackson, refusing to to drive Hayes any further.

Hayes stated after the Fukushima assignment, “When I realised my only safety devices on my latest assignment were a couple of Geiger counters, some pretty flimsy pieces of protective clothing and a burly bloke named Frank, I must say I feared this was one of those times when the risks didn’t add up.”

Introducing Dr. Kaku on the Fukushima 60 Minutes programHayes said, “If you thought nuclear power had been averted in Japan, then meet physicist Michio Kaku.”

Dr. Kaku told Hayes, “If you’ve been exposed to Cesium because you’re a nuclear power worker, even after your long dead and buried, your grave site will be radioactive.”

“Your great grand kids can come to your grave site with a Geiger counter and see that great granddaddy still has radiation at his grave site.”

Unimaginable humanitarian catastrophe: Nuclear refugees

So far, over 135,000 Japanese people have been forced to evacuate according to Hayes.

Riding toward Fukushima, through piles of rubble for stretches where homes once stood, documented in CBS  program, Hayes said, “Streets and towns and villages are deserted.”

“And locals have been told their food and water may be contaminated.”

Stopping along the way, the Geiger showed that a head of cabbage registered as much radiation as an X-ray.

“So every time you have a cabbage, you have an X-ray,” said Hayes.

Radiation refugees by the thousands, wearing masks, live in cardboard shelters, sleeping on the floors of public buildings, with few possessions and little to no privacy, as Hayes saw first-hand and was documented by CBS.

“People have gone to a lot of trouble to make cardboard box into their home.”

Many Japanese people fear their country will never fully recover.

“Do you think you’ll ever be able to take food, water and air you breathe for granted again?” Hayes asked Chia Maxamoto.

“Ah, knowingly? I don’t think so.”

Dr. Kaku asserted about the Japanese people, “These are guinea pigs, absolute human guinea pigs.”

Chernobyl plant and people still crippled and crippling

Hayes of CBS went to Chernobyl to document the scene there that is still “incredibly radioactive.”

“It is a terrible reminder of the horrors those rescue workers faced of not just a fire, but an invisible enemy.”

With what she called her “trusty producer, Phil Goyen, and crew, Scott Morelli and David Ballment, in toe,” Hayes “headed into the exclusion zone of Chernobyl, the scene of the world’s worst nuclear disaster.”

Hayes wrote about the Chernobyl dead zone, “where remnants of lives once lived can be seen everywhere. Homes and schools and playgrounds frozen in time from the day workers and their families were ordered out, never to return.

“We entered a hospital where the first fire fighters to attend the exploding nuclear plant were taken. Their uniforms are still in the basement, and still highly radioactive.”

She said that entering the radiation hospital was a moment she will never forget, furthering, “For the first time I had a sense of the fear and horror those rescue workers must have felt. A terrible death from something they couldn’t see or touch or smell, but certainly felt.”

Children born years after the Chernobyl nuclear disaster still develop cancer from it, as documented by CBS when Hayes was at Kievis Radiation Hospital built specifically for Chernobyl victims, some of whom Hayes interviewed.

These children are “battling cancer and other illnesses believed to be caused by the contamination,” she said.

Children over 32 miles from Fukushima ground zero are already suffering fatigue, diarrhea, and nosebleeds, the three most common of eight radiation sickness signs, the three in the earliest stage of the disease. Five hundred Fukushima children already have radiation in their thyroids.

Explaining that 5,000 tons of Boric acid, concrete and sand were used to bury Chernobyl’s reactor, Dr. Kaku added, “It took years to do this and created a sarcophagus.”

“We all have Chernobyl radiation in out bodies.”

With the Chernobyl power plant in the background, Hayes said there “now a mere band aid over a molten core that is still hot and some still fear is still melting.”

A new sarcophagus has to built because the original one is breaking down.

“The Chernobyl nuclear disaster is still far from over,” said Hayes, reporting that to this day, there is still a 30 kilometer exclusion zone around the nuclear energy plant.

Since 1986, over 5 million people have been affected around Chernobyl according to scientist Iryna Lubunska, interviewed by Hayes.

“One of the things I feel I should know now is where a nuclear reactor is in any country, anywhere in the world, because it might affect me even if I don’t live in that country,” said Hayes.

Today, people as far away as in England are still being affected by Chernobyl.

Fukushima radiation is now combined in the U.S. with toxic radioactive tritium leaking from three-quarters of United States nuclear power plants, radiation from fracking, and radiation from the 2010 BP Gulf oil catastrophe.

Although a tight lid on Fukushima fallout information is keeping Americans in harms way after U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton signed a secret pact with Japan to continue importing its untested food, and government agreed to downplay the fallout lethality, the nuclear energy silent killer continues devouring its victims, now and will for generations, as CBS documented.

Tagged , , ,