The Black Hole of Guyana
The Untold Story of the Jonestown Massacre
by John Judge (1985)
Somewhere in the concrete canyons of New York City a recently formed rock group is using the name Jim Jones and the Suicides. Irreverent and disarming, the name reflects the new trend in punk rock, to take social issues head on. Cynicism about the Jonestown deaths and its social parallels abound in the lyrics of today’s music. The messages are clear because we all know the story.
In fact, people today recognize the name “Jonestown” more than any other event, a full 98% of the population.1 The television and printed media were filled with the news for more than a year, even though the tale read like something from the National Enquirer tabloid. But despite all the coverage, the reality of Jonestown and the reasons behind the bizarre events remain a mystery. The details have faded from memory for most of us since November 18, 1978, but not the outlines. Think back a moment and you’ll remember.
You Know the Official Version
A fanatic religious leader in California led a multiracial community into the jungles of remote Guyana to establish a socialist utopia. The People’s Temple, his church, was in the heart of San Francisco and drew poor people, social activists, Blacks and Hispanics, young and old. The message was racial harmony and justice, and criticism of the hypocrisy of the world around his followers.2
The Temple rose in a vacuum of leadership at the end of an era. The political confrontations of the 60s were almost over, and religious cults and “personal transformation” were on the rise. Those who had preached a similar message on the political soap box were gone, burnt out, discredited, or dead. The counter-culture had apparently degenerated into drugs and violence. Charlie Manson was the only visible image of the period. Suddenly, religion seemed to offer a last hope.3
Even before they left for the Jonestown site, the People’s Temple members were subjects of local scandal in the news.4 Jim Jones claimed these exposés were attacks on their newly-found religion, and used them as an excuse to move most of the members to Guyana.5 But disturbing reports continued to surround Jones, and soon came to the attention of congressional members like Leo Ryan. Stories of beatings, kidnapping, sexual abuse and mysterious deaths leaked out in the press.6 Ryan decided to go to Guyana and investigate the situation for himself. The nightmare began.7
Isolated on the tiny airstrip at Port Kaituma, Ryan and several reporters in his group were murdered. Then came the almost unbelievable “White Night,” a mass suicide pact of the Jonestown camp. A community made up mostly of Blacks and women drank cyanide from paper cups of Kool-Aid, adults and children alike died and fell around the main pavilion. Jones himself was shot in the head, an apparent suicide. For days, the body count mounted, from 400 to nearly 1,000. The bodies were flown to the United States and later cremated or buried in mass graves.8
Temple member Larry Layton is still facing charges of conspiracy in Ryan’s murder. Ryan was recently awarded a posthumous Medal of Honor, and was the first Congress member to die in the line of duty.9
Pete Hammill called the corpses “all the loose change of the sixties.”10 The effect was electric. Any alternative to the current system was seen as futile, if not deadly. Protest only led to police riots and political assassination. Alternative life styles and drugs led to “creepy-crawly” communes and violent murders.11 And religious experiments led to cults and suicide. Social utopias were dreams that turned into nightmares. The television urged us to go back to “The Happy Days” of the apolitical 50s. The message was, get a job, and go back to church.12 The unyielding nuclear threat generated only nihilism and hopelessness. There was no answer but death, no exit from the grisly future. The new ethic was personal success, aerobics, material consumption, a return to “American values,” and the “moral majority” white Christian world. The official message was clear.
But Just Suppose It Didn’t Happen That Way…
The headlines the day of the massacre read: “Cult Dies in South American Jungle: 400 Die in Mass Suicide, 700 Flee into Jungle.”13 By all accounts in the press, as well as People’s Temple statements there were at least 1,100 people at Jonestown.14 There were 809 adult passports found there, and reports of 300 children (276 found among the dead, and 210 never identified). The headline figures from the first day add to the same number: 1,100.15 The original body count done by the Guyanese was 408, and this figure was initially agreed to by U.S. Army authorities on site.16 However, over the next few days, the total of reported dead began to rise quickly. The Army made a series of misleading and openly false statements about the discrepancy. The new total, which was the official final count, was given almost a week later by American authorities as 913.17 A total of 16 survivors were reported to have returned to the U.S.18 Where were the others?
At their first press conference, the Americans claimed that the Guyanese “could not count.” These local people had carried out the gruesome job of counting the bodies, and later assisted American troops in the process of poking holes in the flesh lest they explode from the gasses of decay.19 Then the Americans proposed another theory — they had missed seeing a pile of bodies at the back of the pavilion. The structure was the size of a small house, and they had been at the scene for days. Finally, we were given the official reason for the discrepancy — bodies had fallen on top of other bodies, adults covering children.20
It was a simple, if morbid, arithmetic that led to the first suspicions. The 408 bodies discovered at first count would have to be able to cover 505 bodies for a total of 913. In addition, those who first worked on the bodies would have been unlikely to miss bodies lying beneath each other since each body had to be punctured. Eighty-two of the bodies first found were those of children, reducing the number that could have been hidden below others.21 A search of nearly 150 photographs, aerial and close-up, fails to show even one body lying under another, much less 500.22
It seemed the first reports were true, 400 had died, and 700 had fled to the jungle. The American authorities claimed to have searched for people who had escaped, but found no evidence of any in the surrounding area.23 At least a hundred Guyanese troops were among the first to arrive, and they were ordered to search the jungle for survivors.24 In the area, at the same time, British Black Watch troops were on “training exercises,” with nearly 600 of their best-trained commandos. Soon, American Green Berets were on site as well.25 The presence of these soldiers, specially trained in covert killing operations, may explain the increasing numbers of bodies that appeared.
Most of the photographs show the bodies in neat rows, face down. There are few exceptions. Close shots indicate drag marks, as though the bodies were positioned by someone after death.26 Is it possible that the 700 who fled were rounded up by these troops, brought back to Jonestown and added to the body count?27
If so, the bodies would indicate the cause of death. A new word was coined by the media, “suicide-murder.” But which was it?28 Autopsies and forensic science are a developing art. The detectives of death use a variety of scientific methods and clues to determine how people die, when they expire, and the specific cause of death. Dr. Mootoo, the top Guyanese pathologist, was at Jonestown within hours after the massacre. Refusing the assistance of U.S. pathologists, he accompanied the teams that counted the dead, examined the bodies, and worked to identify the deceased. While the American press screamed about the “Kool-Aid Suicides,” Dr. Mootoo was reaching a much different opinion.29]
There are certain signs that show the types of poisons that lead to the end of life. Cyanide blocks the messages from the brain to the muscles by changing body chemistry in the central nervous system. Even the “involuntary” functions like breathing and heartbeat get mixed neural signals. It is a painful death, breath coming in spurts. The other muscles spasm, limbs twist and contort. The facial muscles draw back into a deadly grin, called “cyanide rictus.”30 All these telling signs were absent in the Jonestown dead. Limbs were limp and relaxed, and the few visible faces showed no sign of distortion.31
Instead, Dr. Mootoo found fresh needle marks at the back of the left shoulder blades of 80-90% of the victims.32 Others had been shot or strangled. One survivor reported that those who resisted were forced by armed guards.33 The gun that reportedly shot Jim Jones was lying nearly 200 feet from his body, not a likely suicide weapon.34 As Chief Medical Examiner, Mootoo’s testimony to the Guyanese grand jury investigating Jonestown led to their conclusion that all but three of the people were murdered by “persons unknown.” Only two had committed suicide they said.35 Several pictures show the gun-shot wounds on the bodies as well.36 The U.S. Army spokesman, Lt. Col. Schuler, said, “No autopsies are needed. The cause of death is not an issue here.” The forensic doctors who later did autopsies at Dover, Delaware, were never made aware of Dr. Mootoo’s findings.37
There are other indications that the Guyanese government participated with American authorities in a cover-up of the real story, despite their own findings. One good example was Guyanese Police Chief Lloyd Barker, who interfered with investigations, helped “recover” 2.5 million for the Guyanese government, and was often the first to officially announce the cover stories relating to suicide, body counts and survivors.38 Among the first to the scene were the wife of Guyanese Prime Minister Forbes Burnham and his Deputy Prime Minister, Ptolemy Reid. They returned from the massacre site with nearly $1 million in cash, gold and jewelry taken from the buildings and from the dead. Inexplicably, one of Burnham’s political party secretaries had visited the site of the massacre only hours before it occurred.39 When Shirley Field Ridley, Guyanese Minister of Information, announced the change in the body count to the shocked Guyanese parliament, she refused to answer further questions. Other representatives began to point a finger of shame at Ridley and the Burnham government, and the local press dubbed the scandal “Templegate.” All accused them of taking a ghoulish payoff.40
Perhaps more significantly, the Americans brought in 16 huge C-131 cargo planes, but claimed they could only carry 36 caskets in each one. These aircraft can carry tanks, trucks, troops and ammunition all in one load.41 At the scene, bodies were stripped of identification, including the medical wrist tags visible in many early photos.42 Dust-off operations during Vietnam clearly demonstrated that the military is capable of moving hundreds of bodies in a short period.43 Instead, they took nearly a week to bring back the Jonestown dead, bringing in the majority at the end of the period.44 The corpses, rotting in the heat, made autopsy impossible.45 At one point, the remains of 183 people arrived in 82 caskets. Although the Guyanese had identified 174 bodies at the site, only 17 (later 46) were tentatively identified at the massive military mortuary in Dover, Delaware.46
Isolated there, hundreds of miles from their families who might have visited the bodies at a similar mortuary in Oakland that was used during Vietnam, many of the dead were eventually cremated.47 Press was excluded, and even family members had difficulty getting access to the remains.48 Officials in New Jersey began to complain that state coroners were excluded, and that the military coroners appointed were illegally performing cremations.49 One of the top forensic body identification experts, who later was brought in to work on the Iranian raid casualties, was denied repeated requests to assist.50 In December, the President of the National Association of Medical Examiners complained in an open letter to the U.S. military that they “badly botched” procedures, and that a simple fluid autopsy was never performed at the point of discovery. Decomposition, embalming and cremation made further forensic work impossible.51 The unorthodox method of identification attempted, to remove the skin from the finger tip and slip it over a gloved finger, would not have stood up in court.52
The long delay made it impossible to reconstruct the event. As noted, these military doctors were unaware of Dr. Mootoo’s conclusions. Several civilian pathology experts said they “shuddered at the ineptness” of the military, and that their autopsy method was “doing it backwards.” But in official statements, the U.S. attempted to discredit the Guyanese grand jury findings, saying they had uncovered “few facts.”53
Guyanese troops, and police who had arrived with American Embassy official Richard Dwyer, also failed to defend Congressman Leo Ryan and others who came to Guyana with him when they were shot down in cold blood at the Port Kaituma airstrip, even though the troops were nearby with machine guns at the ready.54 Although Temple member Larry Layton has been charged with the murders of Congressman Ryan, Temple defector Patricia Parks, and press reporters Greg Robinson, Don Harris and Bob Brown, he was not in a position to shoot them.55 Blocked from boarding Ryan’s twin engine Otter, he had entered another plane nearby. Once inside, he pulled out a gun and wounded two Temple followers, before being disarmed.56 The others were clearly killed by armed men who descended from a tractor trailer at the scene, after opening fire. Witnesses described them as “zombies,” walking mechanically, without emotion, and “looking through you, not at you” as they murdered.57 Only certain people were killed, and the selection was clearly planned. Certain wounded people, like Ryan’s aide Jackie Speiers, were not harmed further, but the killers made sure that Ryan and the newsmen were dead. In some cases they shot people, already wounded, directly in the head.58 These gunmen were never finally identified, and may have been under Layton’s command. They may not have been among the Jonestown dead.59
At the Jonestown site, survivors described a special group of Jones’ followers who were allowed to carry weapons and money, and to come and go from the camp. These people were all white, mostly males.60 They ate better and worked less than the others, and they served as an armed guard to enforce discipline, control labor and restrict movement.61 Among them were Jones’ top lieutenants, including George Phillip Blakey. Blakey and others regularly visited Georgetown, Guyana and made trips in their sea-going boat, the Cudjoe. He was privileged to be aboard the boat when the murders occurred.62 This special armed guard survived the massacre. Many were trained and programmed killers, like the “zombies” who attacked Ryan. Some were used as mercenaries in Africa, and elsewhere.63 The dead were 90% women, and 80% Blacks.64 It is unlikely that men armed with guns and modern crossbows would give up control and willingly be injected with poisons. It is much more likely that they forced nearly 400 people to die by injection, and then assisted in the murder of 500 more who attempted to escape. One survivor clearly heard people cheering 45 minutes after the massacre. Despite government claims, they are not accounted for, nor is their location known.65
Back in California, People’s Temple members openly admitted that they feared they were targeted by a “hit squad,” and the Temple was surrounded for some time by local police forces.66 During that period, two members of the elite guard from Jonestown returned and were allowed into the Temple by police.67 The survivors who rode to Port Kaituma with Leo Ryan complained when Larry Layton boarded the truck, “He’s not one of us.”68 Rumors also persisted that a “death list” of U.S. officials existed, and some survivors verified in testimony to the San Francisco grand jury.69 A congressional aide was quoted in the AP wires on May 19, 1979, “There are 120 white, brainwashed assassins out from Jonestown awaiting the trigger word to pick up their hit.”70
Other survivors included Mark Lane and Charles Garry, lawyers for People’s Temple who managed to escape the massacre somehow.71In addition to the 16 who officially returned with the Ryan party, others managed to reach Georgetown and come back home.72 However, there have been continuing suspicious murders of those people here. Jeannie and Al Mills, who intended to write a book about Jones, were murdered at home, bound and shot.73 Some evidence indicates a connection between the Jonestown operation and the murders of Mayor Moscone and Harvey Milk by police agent Dan White.74 Another Jonestown survivor was shot near his home in Detroit by unidentified killers.75 Yet another was involved in a mass murder of school children in Los Angeles.76 Anyone who survived such massive slaughter must be somewhat suspect. The fact that the press never even spoke about nearly 200 survivors raises serious doubts.
Who Was Jim Jones?
In order to understand the strange events surrounding Jonestown, we must begin with a history of the people involved. The official story of a religious fanatic and his idealist followers doesn’t make sense in light of the evidence of murders, armed killers and autopsy cover-ups. If it happened the way we were told, there should be no reason to try to hide the facts from the public, and full investigation into the deaths at Jonestown, and the murder of Leo Ryan would have been welcomed. What did happen is something else again.
Jim Jones grew up in Lynn, in southern Indiana. His father was an active member of the local Ku Klux Klan that infest that area.77 His friends found him a little strange, and he was interested in preaching the Bible and religious rituals.78 Perhaps more important was his boyhood friendship with Dan Mitrione, confirmed by local residents.79 In the early 50s, Jones set out to be a religious minister, and was ordained at one point by a Christian denomination in Indianapolis.80 It was during this period that he met and married his lifelong mate, Marceline.81 He also had a small business selling monkeys, purchased from the research department at Indiana State University in Bloomington.82
A Bible-thumper and faith healer, Jones put on revivalist tent shows in the area, and worked close to Richmond, Indiana. Mitrione, his friend, worked as chief of police there, and kept him from being arrested or run out of town.83 According to those close to him, he used wet chicken livers as evidence of “cancers” he was removing by “divine powers.”84 His landlady called him “a gangster who used a Bible instead of a gun.”85 His church followers included Charles Beikman, a Green Beret who was to stay with him to the end.86 Beikman was later charged with the murders of several Temple members in Georgetown, following the massacre.87
Dan Mitrione, Jones’ friend, moved on to the CIA-financed International Police Academy, where police were trained in counter-insurgency and torture techniques from around the world.88 Jones, a poor, itinerant preacher, suddenly had money in 1961 for a trip to “minister” in Brazil, and he took his family with him.89 By this time, he had “adopted” Beikman, and eight children, both Black and white.90 His neighbors in Brazil distrusted him. He told them he worked with U.S. Navy Intelligence. His transportation and groceries were being provided by the U.S. Embassy as was the large house he lived in.91 His son, Stephan, commented that he made regular trips to Belo Horizonte, site of the CIA headquarters in Brazil92 An American police advisor, working closely with the CIA at that point, Dan Mitrione was there as well.93 Mitrione had risen in the ranks quickly, and was busy training foreign police in torture and assassination methods. He was later kidnapped by Tupermaro guerillas in Uruguay, interrogated and murdered.94 Costa Gravas made a film about his death titledState of Siege.95 Jones returned to the United States in 1963, with $10,000 in his pocket.96 Recent articles indicate that Catholic clergy are complaining about CIA funding of other denominations for “ministry” in Brazil; perhaps Jones was an early example.97
With his new wealth, Jones was able to travel to California and establish the first People’s Temple in Ukiah, California, in 1965. Guarded by dogs, electric fences and guard towers, he set up Happy Havens Rest Home.98 Despite a lack of trained personnel, or proper licensing, Jones drew in many people at the camp. He had elderly, prisoners, people from psychiatric institutions, and 150 foster children, often transferred to care at Happy Havens by court orders.99 He was contacted there by Christian missionaries from World Vision, an international evangelical order that had done espionage work for the CIA in Southeast Asia.100 He met “influential” members of the community and was befriended by Walter Heady, the head of the local chapter of the John Birch Society.101] He used the members of his “church” to organize local voting drives for Richard Nixon’s election, and worked closely with the republican party.102 He was even appointed chairman of the county grand jury.103
“The Messiah from Ukiah,” as he was known then, met and recruited Timothy Stoen, a Stanford graduate and member of the city DA’s office, and his wife Grace.104 During this time, the Layton family, Terri Buford and George Phillip Blakey and other important members joined the Temple.105] The camp “doctor,” Larry Schacht, claims Jones got him off drugs and into medical school during this period.106These were not just street urchins. Buford’s father was a Commander for the fleet at the Philadelphia Navy Base for years.107 The Laytons were a well-heeled, aristocratic family. Dr. Layton donated at least a quarter-million dollars to Jones. His wife son and daughter were all members of the Temple.108 George Blakey, who married Debbie Layton, was from a wealthy British family. He donated $60,000 to pay the lease on the 27,000-acre Guyana site in 1974.109 Lisa Philips Layton had come to the U.S. from a rich Hamburg banking family in Germany.110] Most of the top lieutenants around Jones were from wealthy, educated backgrounds, many with connections to the military or intelligence agencies. These were the people who would set up the bank accounts, complex legal actions, and financial records that put people under the Temple’s control.111
Stoen was able to set up important contacts for Jones as Assistant DA in San Francisco.112 Jones changed his image to that of a liberal.113 He had spent time studying the preaching methods of Fr. Divine in Philadelphia, and attempted to use them in a manipulative way on the streets of San Francisco. Fr. Divine ran a religious and charitable operation among Philadelphia’s poor Black community.114Jones was able to use his followers in an election once again, this time for Mayor Moscone. Moscone responded in 1976, putting Jones in charge of the city Housing Commission.115 In addition, many of his key followers got jobs with the city Welfare Department and much of the recruitment to the Temple in San Francisco came from the ranks of these unemployed and dispossessed people.116 Jones was introduced to many influential liberal and radical people there, and entertained or greeted people ranging from Roslyn Carter to Angela Davis.117
The period when Jones began the Temple there marked the end of an important political decade. Nixon’s election had ushered in a domestic intelligence dead set against the movements for peace, civil rights and social justice. Names like COINTELPRO, CHAOS, and OPERATION GARDEN PLOT, or the HOUSTON PLAN made the news following in the wake of Watergate revelations.118 Senator Ervin called the White House plans against dissent “fascistic.”119 These operations involved the highest levels of military and civilian intelligence and all levels of police agencies in a full-scale attempt to discredit, disrupt and destroy the movements that sprang up in the 1960s. There are indications that these plans, or the mood they created, led to the assassinations of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, as unacceptable “Black Messiahs.”120
One of the architects under then-Governor Reagan in California was now-Attorney General Edwin Meese. He coordinated “Operation Garden Plot” for military intelligence and all police operations and intelligence in a period that was plagued with violations of civil and constitutional rights.121 Perhaps you recall the police attacks on People’s Park, the murder of many Black Panthers and activists, the infiltration of the Free Speech Movement and antiwar activity, and the experimentation on prisoners at Vacaville, or the shooting of George Jackson.122 Meese later bragged that this activity had damaged or destroyed the people he called “revolutionaries.”123 It was into this situation Jones came to usurp leadership.124
After his arrival in Ukiah, his methods were visible to those who took the time to investigate.125 His armed guards wore black uniforms and leather jackboots. His approach was one of deception, and if that wore off, then manipulation and threats. Loyalty to his church included signing blank sheets of paper, later filled in with “confessions’ and used for blackmail purposes, or to extort funds.126 Yet the vast membership he was extorting often owned little, and he tried to milk them for everything, from personal funds to land deeds.127 Illegal activities were regularly reported during this period, but either not investigated or unresolved. He clearly had the cooperation of local police. Years later, evidence would come out of charges of sexual solicitation, mysteriously dropped.128
Those who sought to leave were prevented and rebuked. Local journalist Kathy Hunter wrote in the Ukiah press about “Seven Mysterious Deaths” of the Temple members who had argued with Jones and attempted to leave. One of these was Maxine Swaney.129 Jones openly hinted to other members that he had arranged for them to die, threatening a similar fate to others who would be disloyal.130 Kathy Hunter later tried to visit Jonestown, only to be forcibly drugged by Temple guards, and deported to Georgetown.131 She later charged that Mark Lane approached her, falsely identifying himself as a reporter for Esquire, rather than as an attorney for Jim Jones. He led her to believe he was seeking information on Jones for an exposé in the magazine, and asked to see her evidence.
The pattern was to continue in San Francisco. In addition, Jones required that members practice for the mysterious “White Night,” a mass suicide ritual that would protect them from murder at the hands of their enemies.132 Although the new Temple had no guards or fences to restrict members, few had other places to live, and many had given over all they owned to Jones. They felt trapped inside this community that preached love, but practiced hatred.133
Following press exposure, and a critical article in New West magazine, Jones became very agitated, and the number of suicide drills increased.134 Complaints about mistreatment by current and ex-members began to appear in the media and reach the ears of congressional representatives. Sam Houston, an old friend of Leo Ryan, came to him with questions about the untimely death of his son following his departure from the Temple.135 Later, Timothy and Grace Stoen would complain to Ryan about custody of their young son, who was living with Jones, and urge him to visit the commune.136 Against advice of friends and staff members, Ryan decided to take a team of journalists to Guyana and seek the truth of the situation.137 Some feel that Ryan’s journey there was planned and expected, and used as a convenient excuse to set up his murder. Others feel that this unexpected violation of secrecy around Jonestown set off the spark that led to the mass murder. In either case, it marked the beginning of the end for Ryan and Jones.138
At one point, to show his powers, Jones arranged to be shot in the heart in front of the congregation. Dragged to a back room, apparently wounded and bleeding, he returned a moment later alive and well. While this may have been more of his stage antics to prompt believers’ faith it may also have marked the end of Jim Jones.139 For undisclosed reasons, Jones had and used “doubles.”140 This is very unusual for a religious leader, but quite common in intelligence operations.141]
Even the death and identification of Jim Jones were peculiar. He was apparently shot by another person at the camp.142 Photos of his body do not show identifying tattoos on his chest. The body and face are not clearly recognizable due to bloating and discoloration.143 The FBI reportedly checked his fingerprints twice, a seemingly futile gesture since it is a precise operation. A more logical route would have been to check dental records.144 Several researchers familiar with the case feel that the body may not have been Jones. Even if the person at the site was one of the “doubles,” it does not mean Jones is still alive. He may have been killed at an earlier point.
What Was Jonestown?
According to one story, Jones was seeking a place on earth that would survive the effects of nuclear war, relying only on an article inEsquire magazine for his list.145 The real reason for his locations in Brazil, California, Guyana and elsewhere deserve more scrutiny.146At one point Jones wanted to set up in Grenada, and he invited then-Prime Minister Sir Eric Gairy to visit the Temple in San Francisco.147He invested $200,000 in the Grenada National Bank in 1977 to pave the way, and some $76,000 was still there after the massacre.148
His final choice, the Matthew’s Ridge section in Guyana is an interesting one. It was originally the site of a Union Carbide bauxite and manganese mine, and Jones used the dock they left behind.149 At an earlier point, it had been one of seven possible sites chosen for the relocation of the Jews after World War II.150 Plans to inhabit the jungles of Guyana’s interior with cheap labor date back to 1919.151Resources buried there are among the richest in the world, and include manganese, diamonds, gold, bauxite and uranium.152 Forbes Burnham, the Prime Minister, had participated in a scheme to repatriate Blacks from the UK to work in the area. Like all earlier attempts, it failed.153
Once chosen, the site was leased and worked on by a select crew of Temple members in preparation for the arrival of the body of the church. The work was done in cooperation with Burnham and the U.S. Embassy there.154 But if these were idealists seeking a better life, their arrival in “Utopia” was a strange welcome. Piled into busses in San Francisco, they had driven to Florida. From there, Pan American charter planes delivered them to Guyana.155 When they arrived at the airport, the Blacks were taken off the plane, bound and gagged.156 The deception had finally been stripped bare of all pretense. The Blacks were so isolated and controlled that neighbors as close as five miles from the site did not know that Blacks lived at Jonestown. The only public representatives seen in Guyana were white.157] Guyanese children were “bought” also.158
According to survivors’ reports, they entered a virtual slave labor camp. Worked for 16 to 18 hours daily, they were forced to live in cramped quarters on minimum rations, usually rice, bread and sometimes rancid meat. Kept on a schedule of physical and mental exhaustion, they were also forced to stay awake at night and listen to lectures by Jones. Threats and abuse became more common.159 The camp medical staff under Dr. Lawrence Schacht was known to perform painful suturing without anaesthetic. They administered drugs, and kept daily medical records.160 Infractions of the rules or disloyalty led to increasingly harsh punishments, including forced drugging, sensory isolation in an underground box, physical torture and public sexual rape and humiliation. Beatings and verbal abuse were commonplace. Only the special guards were treated humanely and fed decently.161 People with serious injuries were flown out, but few ever returned.162 Perhaps the motto at Jonestown should have been the same as the one at Auschwitz, developed by Larry Schacht’s namesake, Dr. Hjalmar Schacht, the Nazi Minister of Economics, “Arheit Macht Frei,” or “Work Will Make You Free.” Guyana even considered setting up an “Auschwitz-like museum” at the site, but abandoned the idea.163
By this point, Jones had amassed incredible wealth. Press estimates ranged from $26 million to $2 billion, including bank accounts, foreign investments and real estate. Accounts were set up worldwide by key members, often in the personal name of certain people in the Temple.164 Much of this money, listed publicly after the massacre, disappeared mysteriously. It was a fortune far too large to have come from membership alone. The receivership set up by the government settled on a total of $10 million. Of special interest were the Swiss bank accounts opened in Panama, the money taken from the camp, and the extensive investments in Barclay’s Bank.165 Other sources of income included the German banking family of Lisa Philips Layton, Larry’s mother.166 Also, close to $65,000 a month income was claimed to come from welfare and social security checks for 199 members, sent to the Temple followers and signed over to Jones.167 In addition, there are indications that Blakey and other members were supplementing the Temple funds with international smuggling of guns and drugs.168 At one point, Charles Garry noted that Jones and his community were “literally sitting on a gold mine.” Mineral distribution maps of Guyana suggest he was right.169
To comprehend this well-financed, sinister operation, we must abandon the myth that this was a religious commune and study instead the history that led to its formation. Jonestown was an experiment, part of a 30-year program called CIA and military intelligence code name for mind control.170 A close study of Senator Ervin’s 1974 report, Individual Rights and the Government’s Role in Behavior Modification, shows that these agencies had certain “target populations” in mind, for both individual and mass control. Blacks, women, prisoners, the elderly, the young, and inmates of psychiatric wards were selected as “potentially violent.”171 There were plans in California at the time for a Center for the Study and Reduction of Violence, expanding on the horrific work of Dr. José Delgado, Drs. Mark and Ervin, and Dr. Jolly West, experts in implantation, psychosurgery, and tranquilizers. The guinea pigs were to be drawn from the ranks of the “target populations,” and taken to an isolated military missile base in California.172 In that same period, Jones began to move his Temple members to Jonestown. The were the exact population selected for such tests.173
The meticulous daily notes and drug records kept by Larry Schacht disappeared, but evidence did not.174 The history of MK-ULTRA and its sister programs (>MK-DELTA, ARTICHOKE, BLUEBIRD, etc.) records a combination of drugs, drug mixtures, electroshock and torture as methods for control. The desired results ranged from temporary and permanent amnesia, uninhibited confessions, and creation of second personalities, to programmed assassins and preconditioned suicidal urges. One goal was the ability to control mass populations, especially for cheap labor.175 Dr. Delgado told Congress that he hoped for a future where a technology would control workers in the field and troops at war with electronic remote signals. He found it hard to understand why people would complain about electrodes implanted in their brains to make them “both happy and productive.”176
On the scene at Jonestown, Guyanese troops discovered a large cache of drugs, enough to drug the entire population of Georgetown, Guyana (well over 200,000)177 for more than a year. According to survivors, these were being used regularly “to control” a population of only 1,100 people.178 One footlocker contained 11,000 doses of thorazine, a dangerous tranquilizer. Drugs used in the testing for MK-ULTRA were found in abundance, including sodium pentathol (a truth serum), chloral hydrate (a hypnotic), demerol, thalium (confuses thinking), and many others.179 Schacht had supplies of haliopareael and largatil as well, two other major tranquilizers.180 The actual description of life at Jonestown is that of a tightly run concentration camp, complete with medical and psychiatric experimentation. The stresses and isolation of the victims is typical of sophisticated brainwashing techniques. The drugs and special tortures add an additional experimental aspect to the horror.181] This more clearly explains the medical tags on the bodies, and why they had to be removed. It also suggests an additional motive for frustrating any chemical autopsies, since these drugs would have been found in the system of the dead.
The story of Jonestown is that of a gruesome experiment, not a religious utopian society. On the eve of the massacre, Forbes Burnham was reportedly converted to “born again” Christianity by members of the Full Gospel Christian Businessman’s Association, including Lionel Luckhoo, a Temple lawyer in Guyana.182 This same group, based in California, also reportedly converted Guatemalan dictator Rios Montt prior to his massacres there and they were in touch with Jim Jones in Ukiah.183 They currently conduct the White House prayer breakfasts for Mr. Reagan.184 With Ryan on his way to Jonestown, the seal of secrecy was broken. In a desperate attempt to test their conditioning methods, the Jonestown elite apparently tried to implement a real suicide drill.185 Clearly, it led to a revolt, and the majority of people fled, unaware that there were people waiting to catch them.
One Too Many Jonestowns
Author Don Freed, an associate of Mark Lane, said that Martin Luther King, “if he could see Johnstown would recognize it as the next step in his agenda, and he would say, one, two, three, many more Jonestowns.”186 Strangely enough, almost every map of Guyana in the major press located Jonestown at a different place following the killings. One map even shows a second site in the area called “Johnstown.”187Perhaps there were multiple camps and Leo Ryan was only shown the one they hoped he would see. In any case, the Jonestown model survives, and similar camps, and their sinister designs, show up in many places.
Inside Guyana itself, approximately 25 miles to the south of Matthews Ridge, is a community called Hilltown, named after religious leader Rabbi Hill. Hill has used the names Abraham Israel and Rabbi Emmanuel Washington. Hilltown, set up about the same time as Jonestown, followed the departure of David Hill, who was known in Cleveland, a fugitive of the U.S. courts. Hill rules with an “iron fist” over some 8,000 Black people from Guyana and America who believe they are the Lost Tribe of Israel and the real Hebrews of Biblical prophecy.188 Used as strong-arm troops, and “internal mercenaries” to insure Burnham’s election, as were Jonestown members, the Hilltown people were allowed to clear the Jonestown site of shoes and unused weapons, both in short supply in Guyana.189 Hill says his followers would gladly kill themselves at his command, but he would survive since, unlike Jones, he is “in control.”190
Similar camps were reported at the time in the Philippines. Perhaps the best known example is the fascist torture camp in Chile known as Colonia Dignidad. Also a religious cult built around a single individual, this one came from Germany to Chile in 1961. In both cases, the camp was their “Agricultural Experiment.” Sealed and protected by the dreaded Chilean DINA police, Colonia Dignidad serves as a torture chamber for political dissidents. To the Jonestown monstrosities, they have added dogs specially trained to attack human genitals.191 The operations there have included the heavy hand of decapitation specialist Michael Townley Welch, an American CIA agent, as well as reported visits by Nazi war criminals Dr. Josef Mengele and Martin Bormann. Currently, another such campsite exists at Pisagua, Chile.192Temple member Jeannie Mills, now dead, reported having seen actual films of a Chilean torture camp while at Jonestown. The only source possible at the time was the Chilean fascists themselves.193
In the current period, Jonestown is being “repopulated” with 100,000 Laotian Hmong people. Many of them grew opium for CIA money in Southeast Asia. Over 1,000 reside there already under a scheme designed by Billy Graham’s nephew Ernest, and members of the Federation of Evangelical Ministries Association in Wheaton, Illinois (World Vision, World Medical Relief, Samaritan’s Purse, and Carl McIntyre’s International Council of Christian Churches).194] Similar plans devised by the Peace Corps included moving inner-city Blacks from America to Jamaica, and other Third World countries. And World Relief attempted to move the population of the Island of Dominica to Jonestown.195 It is only a matter of time before another Jonestown will be exposed, perhaps leading again to massive slaughter.
The Links to U.S. Intelligence Agencies
Our story so far has hinted at connections to U.S. intelligence, such as the long-term friendship of Jones and CIA associate Dan Mitrione. But the ties are much more direct when a full picture of the operation is revealed. To start with, the history of Forbes Burnham’s rise to power in Guyana is fraught with the clear implication of a CIA coup d’état to oust troublesome independent leader Cheddi Jagan.196‘ In addition, the press and other evidence indicated the presence of a CIA agent on the scene at the time of the massacre. This man, Richard Dwyer, was working as Deputy Chief of Mission for the U.S. Embassy in Guyana.197 Identified in Who’s Who in the CIA, he has been involved since 1959, and was last stationed in Martinique.198 Present at the camp site and the airport strip, his accounts were used by the State Department to confirm the death of Leo Ryan. At the massacre, Jones said, “Get Dwyer out of here” just before the killings began.199
Other Embassy personnel, who knew the situation at Jonestown well, were also connected to intelligence work. U.S. Ambassador John Burke, who served in the CIA with Dwyer in Thailand, was an Embassy official described by Philip Agee as working for the CIA since 1963. A Reagan appointee to the CIA, he is still employed by the Agency, usually on State Department assignments.200 Burke tried to stop Ryan’s investigation.201 Also at the Embassy was Chief Consular officer Richard McCoy, described as “close to Jones,” who worked for military intelligence and was “on loan” from the Defense Department at the time of the massacre.202 According to a standard source, “The U.S. embassy in Georgetown housed the Georgetown CIA station. It now appears that the majority and perhaps all of the embassy officials were CIA officers operating under State Department covers . . .”203 Dan Webber, who was sent to the site of the massacre the day after, was also named as 204 Not only did the State Department conceal all reports of violations at Jonestown from Congressman Leo Ryan, but the Embassy regularly provided Jones with copies of all congressional inquiries under the Freedom of Information Act.205
Ryan had challenged the Agency’s overseas operations before, as a member of the House Committee responsible for oversight on intelligence. He was an author of the controversial Hughes-Ryan Amendment that would have required CIA disclosure in advance to the congressional committees of all planned covert operations. The Amendment was defeated shortly after his death.206
American intelligence agencies have a sordid history of cooperative relations with Nazi war criminals and international fascism.207 In light of this, consider the curious ties of the family members of the top lieutenants to Jim Jones. The Layton family is one example. Dr. Laurence Layton was Chief of Chemical and Biological Warfare Research at Dugway Proving Grounds in Utah, for many years, and later worked as Director of Missile and Satellite Development at the Navy Propellant Division, Indian Head, Maryland.208 His wife, Lisa, had come from a rich German family. Her father, Hugo, had represented I.G. Farben as a stockbroker.209 Her stories about hiding her Jewish past from her children for most of her life, and her parents’ escape from a train heading for a Nazi concentration camp seem shallow, as do Dr. Layton’s Quaker religious beliefs. The same family sent money to Jonestown regularly.210 Their daughter, Debbie, met and married George Philip Blakey in an exclusive private school in England. Blakey’s parents have extensive stock holdings in Solvay drugs, a division of the Nazi cartel I.G. Farben.211 He also contributed financially.212
Terri Buford’s father, Admiral Charles T. Buford, worked with Navy Intelligence.213 In addition, Blakey was reportedly running mercenaries from Jonestown to CIA-backed 214 Maria Katsaris’ father was a minister with the Greek Orthodox Church, a common conduit of CIA fundings, and Maris claimed she had proof he was CIA. She was shot in the head, and her death was ruled a suicide, but at one point Charles Beikman was charged with killing her.215 On their return to the United States, the “official” survivors were represented by attorney Joseph Blatchford who had been named prior to that time in a scandal involving CIA infiltration of the Peace Corps.216 Almost everywhere you look at Jonestown, U.S. intelligence and fascism rear their ugly heads.
The connection of intelligence agencies to cults is nothing new. A simple but revealing example is the Unification Church, tied to both the Korean CIA (i.e., American CIA in Korea), and the international fascist network known as the World Anti-Communist League (WACL). The Moonies hosted WACL’s first international conference.217 What distinguished Jonestown was both the level of control and the openly sinister involvement. It was imperative that they cover their tracks.218
Maria Katsaris sent Michael Prokes, Tim Carter, and another guard out at the last minute with $500,000 cash in a suitcase, and instructions for a drop point. Her note inside suggests the funds were destined for the Soviet Union.219 Prokes later shot himself at a San Francisco press conference, where he claimed to be an FBI informant.220 Others reported meeting with KGB agents and plans to move to Russia.221 This disinformation was part of a “red smear” to be used if they had to abandon the operation. The Soviet Union had no interest in the money and even less in Jonestown. The cash was recovered by the Guyanese government.222
Their hidden funding may include more intelligence links. A mysterious account in Panama, totaling nearly $5 million in the name of an “Associacion Pro Religiosa do San Pedro, S.A.” was located.223 This unknown Religious Association of St. Peter was probably one of the twelve phony companies set up by Archbishop Paul Marcinkus to hide the illegal investments of Vatican funds through the scandal-ridden Banco Ambrosiano.224 A few days after the story broke about the accounts, the President of Panama, and most of the government resigned, Roberto Calvi of Banco Ambrosiano was murdered, and the Jonestown account disappeared from public scrutiny and court record.225
The direct orders to cover up the cause of death came from the top levels of the American government. Zbigniew Brezezinsky delegated to Robert Pastor, and he in turn ordered Lt. Col. Gordon Sumner to strip the bodies of identity.226 Pastor is now Deputy Director of the CIA.227 One can only wonder how many others tied to the Jonestown operation were similarly promoted.
The Strange Connection to the Murder of Martin Luther King
One of the persistent problems in researching Jonestown is that it seems to lead to so many other criminal activities, each with its own complex history and cast of characters. Perhaps the most disturbing of these is the connection that appears repeatedly between the characters in the Jonestown story and the key people involved in the murder and investigating of Martin Luther King.
The first clue to this link appeared in the personal histories of the members of the Ryan investigation team who were so selectively and deliberately killed at Port Kaituma. Don Harris, a veteran NBC reporter, had been the only network newsman on the scene to cover Martin Luther King’s activity in Memphis at the time of King’s assassination. He had interviewed key witnesses at the site. His coverage of the urban riots that followed won him an Emmy award.228 Gregory Robinson, a “fearless” journalist from the San Francisco Examiner, had photographed the same riots in Washington, D.C. When he was approached for copies of the films by Justice Department officials, he threw the negatives into the Potomac river.229
The role of Mark Lane, who served as attorney for Jim Jones, is even more clearly intertwined.230 Lane had co-authored a book with Dick Gregory, claiming FBI complicity in the King murder.231 He was hired as the attorney for James Earl Ray, accused assassin, when Ray testified before the House Select Committee on Assassinations about King.232 Prior to this testimony, Ray was involved in an unusual escape plot at Brushy Mountain State Prison.233 The prisoner who had helped engineer the escape plot was later inexplicably offered an early, parole by members of the Tennessee Governor’s office. These officials, and Governor Blanton himself, were to come under close public scrutiny and face legal charges in regard to bribes taken to arrange illegal early pardons for prisoners.234
One of the people living at Jonestown was ex-FBI agent Wesley Swearington, who at least publicly condemned the COINTELPRO operations and other abuses, based on stolen classified documents, at the Jonestown site. Lane had reportedly met with him there at least a year before the massacre. Terri Buford said the documents were passed on to Charles Garry. Lane used information from Swearingen in his thesis on the FBI and King’s murder. Swearingen later served as a key witness in suits against the Justice Department brought by the Socialist Workers Party.235 When Larry Flynt, the flamboyant publisher of Hustler magazine, offered a, $1 million reward leading to the capture and conviction of the John F. Kennedy killers, the long distance number listed to collect information and leads was being answered by Mark Lane and Wesley Swearingen.236
With help from officials in Tennessee, Governor Blanton’s office, Lane managed to get legal custody of a woman who had been incarcerated in the Tennessee state psychiatric system for nearly eight years.237 This woman, Grace Walden Stephens, had been a witness in the King murder.238 She was living at the time in Memphis in a rooming house across from the hotel when Martin Luther King was shot.239 The official version of events had Ray located in the common bathroom of the rooming house, and claimed he used a rifle to murder King from that window.240 Grace Stephens did, indeed, see a man run from the bathroom, past her door and down to the street below.241 A rifle, later linked circumstantially to James Earl Ray, was found inside a bundle at the base of the rooming house stairs, and identified as the murder weapon.242 But Grace, who saw the man clearly, refused to identify him as Ray when shown photographs by the 243 Her testimony was never introduced at the trial. The FBI relied, instead, on the word of her common law husband, Charles Stephens, who was drunk and unconscious at the time of the incident.244 Her persistence in saying that it was not James Earl Ray was used at her mental competency hearings as evidence against her, and she disappeared into the psychiatric system.245
Grace Walden Stephens took up residence in Memphis with Lane, her custodian, and Terri Buford, a key Temple member who had returned to the U.S. before the killings to live with Lane.246 While arranging for her to testify before the Select Committee on Ray’s behalf, Lane and Buford were plotting another fate for Grace Stephens. Notes from Buford to Jones, found in the aftermath of the killings, discussed arrangements with Lane to move Grace Stephens to Jonestown.247 The problem that remained was lack of a passport, but Buford suggested either getting a passport on the black market, or using the passport of former Temple member Maxine Swaney.248 Swaney, dead for nearly 2-1/2 years since her departure from the Ukiah camp, was in no position to argue and Jones apparently kept her passport with him.249 Whether Grace ever arrived at Jonestown is unclear.
Lane was also forced to leave Ray in the midst of testimony to the Select Committee when he got word that Ryan was planning to visit. Lane had attempted to discourage the trip earlier in a vaguely threatening letter.250 Now he rushed to be sure he arrived with the group.251 At the scene, he failed to warn Ryan and others, knowing that the sandwiches and other food might be drugged, but refrained from eating it himself.252 Later, claiming that he and Charles Garry would write the official history of the “revolutionary suicide,” Lane was allowed to leave the pieces of underwear to mark their way back to Georgetown.253 If true, it seems an unlikely method if they were in any fear of pursuit. They had heard gunfire and screams back at the camp.254 Lane was reportedly well aware of the forced drugging and suicide drills at Jonestown before Ryan arrived.255
Another important figure in the murder of Martin Luther King was his mother, Alberta. A few weeks after the first public announcement by Coretta Scott King that she believed her husband’s murder was part of a conspiracy, Mrs. Alberta King was brutally shot to death in Atlanta, while attending church services.256 Anyone who had seen the physical wounds suffered by King might have been an adverse witness to the official version, since the Wound angles did not match the ballistic direction of a shot from the rooming house.257 Her death also closely coincided with the reopening of the Tennessee state court review of Ray’s conviction based on a guilty plea, required by a 6th Circuit decision.258 The judge in that case reportedly refused to allow witnesses from beyond a 100-mile radius from the courtroom.259
The man convicted of shooting King’s mother was Marcus Wayne Chenault. His emotional affect following the murder was unusual. Grinning, he asked if he had hit anyone.260 He had reportedly been dropped off at the church by people he knew in Ohio.261 While at Ohio State University, he was part of a group known as “the Troop,” run by a Black minister and gun collector who used the name Rabbi Emmanuel Israel. This man, described in the press as a “mentor” for Chenault, left the area immediately after the shooting.262 In the same period, Rabbi Hill traveled from Ohio to Guyana and set up Hilltown, using similar aliases, and preaching the same message of a “black Hebrew elite.”263 Chenault confided to SCLC leaders that he was one of many killers who were working to assassinate a long list of Black leadership. The names he said were on this list coincided with similar “death lists” distributed by the KKK, and linked to the COINTELPRO operations in the 60s.264
The real backgrounds and identities of Marcus Wayne Chenault and Rabbi Hill may never be discovered. But one thing is certain: Martin Luther King Would never had countenanced the preachings of Jim Jones, had he lived to hear them.265
In the face of such horror, it may seem little compensation to know that a part of the truth has been unearthed. But for the families and some of the Survivors, the truth, however painful, is the only path to being relieved of the burden of their doubts. It’s hard to believe that President Carter was calling on us at the time not to “overreact.” The idea that a large community of Black people would not only stand by and be poisoned at the suggestion of Jim Jones, but would allow their children to be murdered first, is a monstrous lie, and a racist insult.266 We now know that the most direct description of Jonestown is that it was a Black genocide plan. One Temple director, Joyce Shaw, described the Jonestown massacre as, “some kind of horrible government experiments, or some sort of sick racial thing, a plan like that of the Germans to exterminate Blacks.”267 If we refuse to look further into this nightmarish event, there will be more Jonestowns to come. They will move from Guyana to our own back yard.
The cast of characters is neither dead nor inactive. Key members of the armed guard were ordered to be on board the Temple Ship,Cudjoe — at the hour of the massacre they were on a supply run to Trinidad. George Phillip Blakey phoned his father-in-law, Dr. Lawrence Layton, from Panama after the event.268 At least ten members of the Temple remained on the boat, and set up a new community in Trinidad while Nigel Slingger, a Grenada businessman and insurance broker for Jonestown, repaired the 400-ton shipping vessel. Then Charles Touchette, Paul McCann, Stephan Jones, and George Blakey set up an “open house” in Grenada with the others. McCann spoke about starting a shipping company to “finance the continued work of the original Temple.”269
That “work” may have included the mysterious operations of the mental hospital in Grenada that eluded government security by promising free medical care.270 The hospital as operated by Sir Geoffrey Bourne, Chancellor of the St. George’s University Medical School, was also staffed by his son Dr. Peter Bourne.271 His son’s history includes work with psychological experiments and USAID in Vietnam, the methadone clinics in the U.S., and a drug scandal in the Carter White House.272 The mental hospital was the only structure bombed during the U.S. invasion of Grenada in 1983. This was part of a plan to put Sir Eric Gairy back in power.273 Were additional experiments going on at the site?274
In addition, the killers of Leo Ryan and others at Port Kaituma were never accounted for fully. The trial of Larry Layton was mishandled by the Guyanese courts, and the U.S. system as well.275 No adequate evidentiary hearings have occurred either at the trial or in state and congressional reviews. The Jonestown killers, trained assassins and mercenaries, are not on trial. They might be working in Africa or Central America. Their participation in Jonestown can be used as an “explanation” for their involvement in later murders here, such as the case of the attack on school children in Los Angeles.276 They should be named and located.
The money behind Jonestown was never fully examined or recovered. The court receivership only collected a fraction. The bulk went to pay back military operations and burial costs. Families of the dead were awarded only minimal amounts.277 Some filed suit, unsuccessfully, to learn more about the circumstances of the deaths, and who was responsible. Joe Holsinger, Leo Ryan’s close friend and assistant, studied the case for two years and reached the same unnerving conclusions: these people were murdered, there was evidence of a mass mind-control experiment, and the top levels of civilian and military intelligence were involved.278 He worked with Ryan’s family members to prove the corruption and injustice, but they could barely afford the immense court costs and case preparation. Their suit, as well as a similar one brought by ex-members and families of the victims, had to be dropped for lack of funds.279
The international operations of World Vision and the related evangelical groups continue unabashed. World Vision official John W. Hinckley, Sr. was on his way to a Guatemalan water project run by the organization on the day his son shot at president Reagan.280 A mysterious “double” of Hinckley, Jr., a man named Richardson, followed Hinckley’s path from Colorado to Connecticut, and even wrote love letters to Jody Foster. Richardson was a follower of Carl McIntyre’s International Council of Christian Churches, and attended their Bible School in Florida. He was arrested shortly after the assassination attempt in New York’s Port Authority with a weapon, and claimed he intended to kill Reagan.281
Another World Vision employee, Mark David Chapman, worked at their Haitian refugee camp in Ft. Chaffee, Arkansas. He was later to gain infamy as the assassin of John Lennon in New York City.282 World Vision works with refugees worldwide. At the Honduran border, they are present in camps used by American CIA to recruit mercenaries against Nicaragua. They were at Sabra and Shatilla, Camps in Lebanon where fascist Phalange massacred the Palestinians.283 Their representatives in the Cuban refugee camps on the east coast included members of the Bay of Pigs operation, CIA-financed mercenaries from Omega 7 and Alpha 66.284 Are they being used as a worldwide cover for the recruitment and training of these killers? They are, as mentioned earlier, working to repopulate Jonestown with Laotians who served as mercenaries for our 285
Silence in the face of these murders is the worst possible response. The telling sign above the Jonestown dead read, “Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”286 The genocide will come home to America. How many spent time studying the rash of child murders in Atlanta’s Black community or asked the necessary questions about the discrepancies in the conviction of Wayne Williams?287 Would we recognize a planned genocide if it occurred under similar subterfuge?
Leo Ryan’s daughter, Shannon, lives among the disciples of another cult today, at the new city of Rajneeshpuram in Arizona. She was quoted in the press, during the recent controversy over a nationwide recruiting drive to bring urban homeless people to the commune, saying she did not believe it could end like Jonestown, since the leader would not ask them to commit suicide. “If he did ask me, I would do it,” she said.288 Homeless recruits who had left since then are suing in court because of suspicious and unnecessary injections given them by the commune’s doctor, and a liquid they were served daily in unmarked jars that many believe was not simply “beer.” One man in the suit claims he was drugged and disoriented for days after his first injection.289
The ultimate victims of mind control at Jonestown are the American people. If we fail to look beyond the constructed images given us by the television and the press, then our consciousness is manipulated, just as well as the Jonestown victims’ was. Facing nuclear annihilation, may see the current militarism of the Reagan policies, and military training itself, as the real “mass suicide cult.” If the discrepancy between the truth of Jonestown and the official version can be so great, what other lies have we been told about major events?290
History is precious. In a democracy, knowledge must be accessible for informed consent to function. Hiding or distorting history behind “national security” leaves the public as the final enemy of the government. Democratic process cannot operate on “need to know.” Otherwise we live in the 1984 envisioned by Orwell’s projections and we must heed his warning that those who control the past control the future.291
The real tragedy of Jonestown is not only that it occurred, but that so few chose to ask themselves why or how, so few sought to find out the facts behind the bizarre tale used to explain away the death of more than 900 people, and that so many will continue to be blind to the grim reality of our intelligence agencies. In the long run, the truth will come out. Only our complicity in the deception continues to dishonor the dead.
1. Hold Hands and Die! John Maguire (Dale Books, 1978), p. 235 (Story of the Century); Raven, Tim Reiterman (Dutton, 1982) p. 575 (citing poll result).
2. The standard version first appeared in two “instant books,” so instant (12/10/78) they seemed to have been written before the event! TheSuicide Cult, Kilduff & Javers (Bantam Books, 1978); Guyana Massacre, Charles Krause (Berkeley Pub., 1978).Other standard research works on the topic include: White Night, John Peer Nugent (Wade, 1979); Raven, op cit., and Hold Hands and Die!, op cit.; The Cult That Died, George Klineman (Putnam 1980); The Children of Jonestown, Kenneth Wooden (McGraw-Hill, 1981);The Strongest Poison, Mark Lane (Hawthorn Books, 1980); Our Father Who Art In Hell, James Reston (Times Books, 1981); Journey to Nowhere, Shiva Naipaul (Simon & Schuster, 1981); The Assassination of Representative Leo J. Ryan & The Jonestown, Guyana Tragedy, Report, House Committee on Foreign Affairs (GPO, May 15, 1979).Personal accounts by members of People’s Temple and survivors of Jonestown: Six Years With God, Jeannie Mills (A&W Publ., 1979); People’s Temple, People’s Tomb, Phil Kerns (Logos, Int., 1979); Deceived, Mel White (Spire Books, 1979); The Broken God, Bonnie Theilmann (David Cook, 1979); Awake in a Nightmare, Feinsod (Norton, 1981); In My Father’s House, Yee & Layton (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1981).
3. “The People’s Temple,” William Pfaff, New Yorker, 12/18/78; Hold Hands, p. 241-7 (cults) and Journey to Nowhere, p. 294 (the period); The Family, Ed Sanders (Avon Press, 1974) (Charlie Manson); Snapping, Flo Conway (brainwashing); Ecstasy & Holiness, Frank Musgrove (Indiana Univ. Press, 1974).In case you missed the decade and what happened: The Sixties (Rolling Stone Press, 1977); The Sixties Papers, Judith & Stew Albert (Praeger, 1984); By Any Means Necessary: Outlaw Manifestoes 1965-70, P. Stansill (Penguin, 1971); Protest & Discontent, Bernard Crick (Penguin 1970); Fire in the Streets, Milton Viorst (Random House, 1982); Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984(Yipster Times, 1984); The Making of a Counter-Culture, Theodor Roszak (Doubleday, 1969).
4. “Inside People’s Temple,” Marshall Kilduff, New West, 8/1/77; Hold Hands, p. 100.
7. Assassination of Leo J. Ryan, op cit., pp. 1-3; “Ryan to Visit,” Kilduff, San Francisco Chronicle (SFC), 11/8/78.
8. “A Hell of a Story: The Selling of a Massacre,” Wash. Jrn. Rev., Jan-Feb, 1979. Standard details recounted in books cited above in footnote 2. Children of Jonestown, p. 201 (mass grave); NYT, 12/19 and 12/20/78, and 1/10/79 (28 cremated), also 1/25 and 5/25/79 (bodies cremated in mass grave, 248).
11. Helter Skelter, Vincent Bugliosi (Norton, 1974).
12. Hold Hands, pp. 215-16.
13. New York Post, 11/21/78 (headline); WP, 11/21/78, San Francisco Examiner (SFE), 11/22/78, Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/23/78, NYT, 11/22/78 (flee to jungle); NYT, 11/21-23/78 (estimated 4-500 missing); White Night, pp. 224-226 and NYT, 11/23/78 (U.S. search with loudspeakers).
15. WP, 11/21/78 (passports); White Night, p. 230 (809 visa applications), and Hold Hands, p. 146 (800 on busses to Florida); Children of Jonestown, p. 202, and NYT, 11/26/78 (children, 260 dead at site, 276 at Dover).
17. White Night, p. 231 and Hold Hands, pp. 226-34; NYT, 11/25/78 (775, P. Reid, Guyana), 11/26/78 (over 900, U.S. “final” 910, AF or 914, Reuters); 11/29/78 (900, Lloyd Barker, Guyana), 12/1/78 (911, U.S. Air Force), 12/4/78 (911, Dover AFB, Del.).
18. Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/23/85.
20. White Night, p. 229 (pavilion story), 230 (“mounds of people,” Maj. Hickman); SFE 11/25/78 (adults covered children); NYT, 11/25/78 (“layered,” Ridley, Guyana, but U.S. soldier, “only one layer”).
22. Photographs appear in most of the standard reference works, see footnote 2. Also, good pictures in the following: “Jonestown: the Survivors’ Story,” NYT Magazine, 11/18/79; “Death in the Jungle,” 11/27/78 and “Cult of Death,” 12/4/78 in Newsweek; “Cult Massacre,” 11/27/78 and “Cult of Death,” 12/4/78 in Time; “Cult of Madness,” 12/4/78 and “Bloody Trail Behind Jonestown,” 12/25/78 in Macleans; “In the Valley of the Shadow of Death,” Tim Cahill, Rolling Stone, 1/25/79; “Questions Linger about Guyana,” Sidney Jones, Oakland Times, 12/9/78; “Cult Defectors Suspect U.S. of Cover-up,” Los Angeles Times, 12/18/78.
23. White Night, p. 229 (quoting State Dept. Bushnell), and Hold Hands, p. 233 (doubts); NYT, 11/23/78 (U.S. searching, Carter); 11/24/78 (“in vain”), 11/29/78 (“none”), and 12/1/78 (30-40 in Venezuela).
25. White Night, p. 224 (over 300 U.S. troops, 11/20); Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/23/78 (325 U.S. troops); Hold Hands, p. 200 (200 for clean-up) and NYT, 11/23/78 (239 to evacuate). What was the function of nearly 100 additional U.S. forces? ” Jocks in the Jungle,” London Sunday Times, 11/78 (British Black Watch troops).
26. Photographs, see footnote 22. Strongest Poison, p. 194 (Lou Gurvich, “dragged and laid out”).
27. “Mystery Shrouds Jonestown Affair,” Guyanese Daily Mirror, 11/23/78; NYT, 11/24 and 29/78 (missing in jungle disappear, Guyanese say “none,” Barker).
29. Children of Jonestown, p. 193; NYT, 12/14/78 (Mootoo testifies to coroner’s jury), 2/18/79 (Chicago Med. Examiner Robt. Stein promised help, none came).
30. A Guide to Pathological Evidence for Lawyers and Police Officers, F. Jaffe (Carswell Press, 1983); Poisons, Properties, Chemical Identification, Symptoms and Emergency Treatment, V. Brooks (Van Nostrand, 1958).
31. Photographs, see footnote 22. “Questions Linger,” Oakland Times, 12/9/78.
32. “Coroner Says 700 Who Died in Cult were Slain,” Miami Herald, 12/17/78; NYT, 12/12/78 (injections, upper arm), 11/17/78 (700 were murdered), 12/18/78 (Mootoo shocks American Academy of Forensic Scientists meeting).
33. White Night, pp. 230-1 (shot); WP, 11/221/78 (shot), Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/23/78 (“bullets in bodies,” Ridley); NYT, 11/29/78 (“no guns/struggle,” Lloyd Barker), 11/20/78 (“no violence,” Ridley); NYT, 11/18,19,21/78 (Jim Jones, Annie Moore, Maria Katsaris shot in head); WP, 11/21/78 (“forced to die by guards”), also Washington Star, 11/25/78 (forced).
34. Children of Jonestown, p. 191 and WP, 11/21/78 (unknown if Jones shot himself); Strongest Poison, p. 194 (Gurvich, no nitrate test on hands); Hold Hands, p. 260 (gun far from body); Miami Herald, 12/17/78 (Mootoo suspects murdered); NYT, 11/26/78 (drug o.d., shot after, U.S. Major Groom), 12/1,7/78 (Guyanese and U.S. pathologists autopsy), 12/10/78 (ballistics tests), 12/20,21/78 (illegal cremation), 12/23/78 (not suicide, Mag. Bacchus, Guyana Coroner’s Jury).
35. Raven, p. 576 and Miami Herald, 12/17/78 (grand jury decision); Strongest Poison, p. 194 (Gurvich, evidence of shooting, over 600 bodies);NYT, 12/13/78 (grand jury set up), 12/14,15,17/78 (Mootoo testimony, tour of site), 12/23/78 (conclusion, “persons unknown,” Katsaris, Moore suicides).
36. Hold Hands, cover photo, and see footnote 22.
37. White Night, p. 231 (Schuler quote), Children of Jonestown, p. 197 (unaware); Strongest Poison, pp. 182-89 (autopsy problems); NYT, 11/26/78 and 12/5/78 (no autopsies, reluctant), 11/26/78 (Mootoo’s work unknown).
38. Hold Hands, p. 260, and see footnotes 17, 28, 33 or Lloyd Barker; “Cult Defectors Suspect Cover-up,” LAT, 12/18/78; “Jonestown & the CIA, Daily World, 6/23/81; NYT, 12/3,8/78 (Lloyd Barker collusion), 12/7,8,24/78 (Deputy Prime Minister Reid’s role), 12/25/78 (U.S. attempts to discredit coroner’s jury).
40. Journey to Nowhere, p. 58,117 (Ptolemy Reid cover-up), see also footnote 38; Daily World, 10/23/80 (Cheddi Jagan interview); Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/28/78 (1/23/79); NYT, 1/23/79 (“Templegate”); NYT, 11/20,25/78 (Ridley body counts, 408 to 708), and see footnote 33; NYT, 11/26, 12/6,11,24/78 and 2/11,5/16/79 (Guyana’s collusion) and 12/3/78 (Burnham).
44. Hold Hands, pp. 200-1 (182 arrive last day); White Night, pp. 226, 231 (Maj. Hickman, “six days,” first bodies arrive Dover 11/28); NYT, 11/24,26/78 (airlift details)
45. Hold Hands, p. 204; White Night, pp. 228-31 (description, “These were the worst”).
46. Hold Hands, p. 201 (182 last day, 17 identified); White Night, p. 226 (Dover site), 227 (174 identified by Guyanese), 231 (183 in 82 caskets); NYT, 11/30/78 (Dover, map), 11/21/78 (50 U.S. experts sent), 12/1/78 (46 identified).
47. Hold Hands, p. 204 (Jones cremated), and see footnote 8.
48. Hold Hands, p. 203 (families not permitted to see remains), and personal interviews; Baltimore Sun, 12/28/78 (only 259 claimed by families); NYT, 12/22/78, 1/8,24/79, 2/17/78, 3/31/79, 4/18/79 (Dover body counts 675 to 547) and 4/26.
50. “Medical Examiners Find Failings by Government on Cult Bodies,” NYT, 12/3/78; Rescue Mission Report, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Special Operations Review (GPO, 1980); Delta Force, Charles Beckwith (Harcourt Brace & Jovanovich, 1983).
51. White Night, pp. 228-9 (no autopsies, death certificates in Guyana); NYT, 12/12/78 (Dr. Sturmer, National Assoc. of Med. Examiners);NYT, 12/3/78 (other medical examiners complain, “legally dubious method”); NYT, 12/16/78 (Sturmer again), 12/4/78 (embalmed) andfootnote 8 (cremations).
53. Children of Jonestown, p. 197; Hold Hands, p. 204; Strongest Poison, pp. 182-89; NYT, 12/3,18/79 (quotes), 12/13,16,17,19/78 (autopsies, complaints), 12/25/78 (“few facts”), and footnote 37 (Mootoo’s work unknown).
56. Ibid. – Raven.
57. White Night, p. 197, Raven, p. 525ff (ambush described); Hold Hands, p. 256 (Layton’s “dumb stare”), and LAT, 11/28/79 (Layton as “robot”); Journey to Nowhere, pp. 96-98 (Beikman in court “staring”); NYT, 12/15/78 (Layton insanity defense), 12/21/78 (Layton “responsible”).
59. WP, 11/21/78 (Laytons’ role, Jones’ quote); Boston Globe, “Killers Hunted,” 11/21/78; SFE, 11/22/78 (7 involved); NYT, 11/20/78 and 12/18/78 (lists of dead), 11/21/78 and 12/21/78 (Kice named, Joe Wilson gave Ryan gun at ambush), 11/29/78 and 12/9/78 (claim all dead, 8 warrants dropped), 12/21/78 (survivors scared to fly with “others”), 11/22 and 12/20/78 (Stephan Jones, Tim Carter, Michael Prokes arrested or charged with murders), 11/22,25/78 and 12/15,17/78 (Cobb, Rhodes, Moore, Clayton, named survivors), 12/6/78 (3 escape to Caracas & Miami before massacre).Who Killed Ryan? NYT, 11/22/78 (FBI investigates “conspiracy”), 12/28/78 (Tim Jones takes 5th amendment on Ryan shooting).
62. White Night, p. 139; Raven, p. 403 (Cudjoe); and Raven, p. 241 (obeyed orders).
63. Chicago Defender, cited in Black Panther News, 12/30/78 (UNITA recruits for Africa); “Ryan Murder Suspect Resembles Robot,” Hall, LAT, 11/26/78 (programmed), NYT, 11/30/78 (survivors had special privileges).
65. WP, 12/9/78 (FBI claims killers among dead), see footnotes 13, 23 (missing people); LAT, 11/25/78 (Stanley Clayton, survivor, “hundreds were slain,” “forced to die”); NYT, 12/6/78 (3 escape), 12/4/78 (Pan Am won’t fly without armed guard), 1/29/74, (“cheers” heard), 12/23/78 (“persons unknown”).
66. Assassination of Leo J. Ryan, p. 35; Raven, pp. 572-3; Hold Hands, p.254 (“hit squad”); White Night, p. 224 (rumors at site); Journey to Nowhere, p. 148 (“basketball team”); LAT, 12/18/78, NYT, 12/1,4/78 (fears in U.S.), NYT, 12/4/78 (SF police guard Temple, “at a loss”), 12/23/78 (radio orders to kill relatives, Jonestown to San Francisco day of massacre, FBI).
67. Raven (Prokes & Tim Carter), see footnote 59, and NYT, 12/12/78 (Carter arrested with pistols).
71. “Suicide Carnage,” Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78 (“write the story”); Hold Hands, pp. 127, 221 (Lane, Garry lawyers for People’s Temple); NYT, 11/23/78 (Garry once called Jonestown “paradise,” says Jones “lost reason”); NYT, 11/21/78 (picked up in jungle by Guyanese troops).
74. Hold Hands, pp. 130-31, 254 (link of Jones to Moscone and Milk); The Mayor of Castro Street, Randy Shilts (St. Martin’s, 1982); NYT, 1/17, 2/19, 4/24, 5/18, 5/22, 7/4/79 (Dan White arrest, trial, conviction, sentence); NYT, 5/22/79 (gay riot in response), 5/22/79 (White biography); NYT, 11/27 (murder), 12/6 (“no link”), 12/18/78 (illegal votes for Moscone); “The Milk/Moscone Case Reviewed,” Paul Krassner,Nation, 1/14/84.
78. Hold Hands, pp. 62-3.
80. Hold Hands, pp. 63-4 (calling as minister), 66, 70 (ordained as minister); NYT, 11/22,29/79, 3/13/79 (Disciples of Christ).
83. Hold Hands, p. 65 (faith healer); Hidden Terrors, pp. 17, 41 (chief of police).
87. White Night, p.236; Journey to Nowhere, pp. 95, 98 (Burnham’s people defend him), NYT, 11/21 (murders), 11/26, 12/1,5,14/78 (charges and trials), 12/19/78 and 2/3/79 (Stephan Jones “confesses” and “retracts”), 11/28/78 (charged with Katsaris).
92. San Jose Mercury, 11/78; “Penthouse Interview: Stephan Jones,” Penthouse, 4/79.
94. Ibid., pp. 139-40 (reference to Who’s Who in CIA); NYT, 6/11,29/79 (Uruguay).
96. Journey to Nowhere, p. 247; Hold Hands, p. 171 (paid “pile of money,” “$5,000 to have sex with Ambassador’s wife” — cover story for payoff); Suicide Cult, p. 42 (money to travel around U.S. on return).
97. “Bishop’s Report Names CIA,” WP, 2/16/85; “Private Groups . . . Millions Raised,” WP, 12/10/84; “Americares Foundation — Central America Gets Private Aid,” WP, 2/27/85 (Knights of Malta, CIA’s Casey, Brezezinsky, Haig, funnel donations for “medicine” through Sterling Drugs, linked to I.G. Farben.).
99. “Guyana Tragedy Points to a Need for Better Care and Protection of Guardianship Children,” Comptroller General Report (GPO, 1980);NYT, 1/25/79 (150 “foster children” in Ukiah), 2/14/79 (Mendocino agency says “none placed”), 2/17/79 (Sen. Cranston says 17 Ukiah children among dead).
100. “World Vision, Go Home,” L. Lee, Christian Century, 5/16/79; “In the Spirit of Jimmy Jones,” J. Fogarty, Akwesasne Notes, Winter, 1982;NYT, 2/26,4/4,11/16/75 and 12/25/79 (W.V. Cambodia), 4/2-5/75 and 6/30/79 (Vietnam work).
102. “Jim Jones was a Republican for 6 Years,” LAT, 12/17/78; Hold Hands, p. 70 (Jones held 15% vote Mendocino County).
106. Six Years, p. 86ff (photos); NYT, 11/22-24/78 (biography), 11/29/78 (college $).
107. Strongest Poison, p. 85; Philadelphia Inquirer, 11/19/78.
108. Hold Hands, p. 138 (family joins); “Cult Got Assets from Layton,” LAT, 11/26/78; “Family Tragedy,” NYT, 12/4/78 (aristocratic).
110. In My Father’s House, pp. 18-19.
114. Hold Hands, pp. 73-75, 79, 176.
115. Hold Hands, pp. 182-3; Journey to Nowhere, pp. 223-4, WP, 11/22/78 (Housing Commission); “DA Accuses Deputy Stoen,” SFE, 1/21/79;WP, 11/22/78; Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78 (election and voter fraud); NYT, 12/18,20/78 (illegal Moscone votes).
117. Hold Hands, p. 132 (Angela Davis), 213 and NYT, 11/23/78 (Roslyn Carter), NYT, 11/21/78 (list), also WP, 11/20/78 and Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78.
118. Age of Surveillance, Frank Donner (Random House, 1980); Spying on Americans, Athan Theoharis (Temple University Press, 1978; “Garden Plot and SWAT: U.S. Police as New Action Army,” Counterspy, Winter, 1976.
119. Secret Agenda, Jim Hougan (Random House, 1984), pp. 99, 102; Final Report, Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities (GPO, 1974), pp. 3-7 and Hearings, Vol. 3, pp. 1319-37 and-Vol. 4, pp. 1453-64 (describes Houston plan); The Whole Truth: The Watergate Conspiracy, Sam Ervin (Random House, 1980); “A New Watergate Revelation: The White House Death Squads,” Johnathan Marshall, Inquiry, 3/5/79.
120. COINTELPRO, Nelson Blackstock (Vintage, 1976); The FBI and Martin Luther King: From SOLO to Memphis, David Garrow (Norton, 1981); Assassination of Malcolm X, George Breiterman (Pathfinder Press, 1976); also see on King harassment: Nation, 6/17/78,Newsweek, 9/28/81, and NYT, 3/17/75. Also browse NYT, 11/19-23/75 and 12/3-24/75.
121. “Remembering Ed Meese: From the Free Speech Movement to Operation Garden Plot,” Johan Carlisle, S.F. Bay Guardian, 4/4/84; “Officer Ed Meese,” Jeff Stein, New Republic, 10/7/81; “Ed Meese,” Rebel, 12/13/84, Alex Dubro; “Bringing the War Home,” Ron Ridenhour, New Times, 11/28/75.
124. “Jim Jones: The Seduction of San Francisco,” J. Kasindorf, New West, 12/18/78; “Churchmen Hunt Clues on Cult’s Lure for Blacks,” H. Soles, Christianity Today, 3/23/79; “An Interpretation of People’s Temple and Jim Jones,” Journal Interdenom. Theol. Ctr., Fall 1979; “Cuname, Curare & Cool Aid: The Politics that Spawned and Nurtured Jonestown,” George Jackson (self-published, 1984).
126. Hold Hands, pp. 88, 182-3.
136. Hold Hands, p. 127, 133.
142. See footnote 34.
148. SFE, 1/9/79. Also see my “Jonestown Banks” piece.
154. Hold Hands, p. 144 (Embassy visits since 1973); “Consulate Officers: Babysitters,” NYT, 11/29/78 and NYT, 12/6,11,24/78 (Guyana denies links), but see 5/16/79 (House Report charges collusion), and 12/5/78; 5/4,16/79 (House report critical of role of U.S. Embassy).
157. Journey to Nowhere, p. 107, (guards, “state within a state”); Hold Hands, p. 127 (coercion by armed guards, Yolanda Crawford), personal interview with Guyanese living within 5 miles of site, 1981.
161. Hold Hands, pp. 50-51 (Tim Bogue), 157-63, 170-1 (public rape); “People’s Temple in Guyana is a Prison,” Santa Rosa Press Democrat, 4/12/78; Newsweek, 12/4/78 (special treatment); SFC, 6/15/78; Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78; NYT, 11/20/78 (slaves, torture), 12/4/78 (denials).
163. Trading with the Enemy, Charles Higham (Dell, 1983), p. 23 (Schacht role in war); NYT, 10/11/79 (Auschwitz plan).
164. Miami Herald, 3/27/79 (set up accounts); LAT 11/18/79, and see my “Jonestown Banks“); NYT, 11/21,23,28,29/78; 12/2,3,8,16,20/78 (millions described in various places); NYT, 1/13/79 (IRS says back taxes would be millions), 12/3/78 ($2 million real estate).
165. LAT, 1/5/78; SFC, 1/9/79, and see my “Jonestown Banks” again; NYT, 8/3/79 (puts Panama and Venezuela accounts at $15 million plus),NYT, 1/24/79 (receivership), 12/19/78 and 2/11; 10/11/79 (U.S. and Guyanese government and relatives claim it).
167. Assassination, pp. 775-6, (199 SSA beneficiaries at site), Hold Hands, pp. 78, 139; NYT, 11/22/78 (200 get $40,000/month), and 2/14/79 (Senate investigation). If the average check is $200 a month, how do 199 people equal $65,000?
169. Area Handbook, op cit., see footnote 152.
170. Operation Mind Control, Walter Bowart (Dell, 1978); The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, John Marks (Times Books, 1978); “Project MK-ULTRA: CIA Program of Research in Behavior Modification,” Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Hearings, 8/3/77 (GPO, 1977);WP, “MK-ULTRA” (series), summer/fall 1977; NYT, 1/30/79 (overview of MK-ULTRA).
171. Individual Rights and the Federal Role in Behavior Modification, Senate Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights (GPO, 1974); NYT, 1/25/79 (children), 2/7,10/79 (blacks), Philadelphia Inquirer, 11/26/79 (prison).
172. The Mind Manipulators, Scheflin & Opton (Grosset & Dunlap, 1978); The Mind Stealers: Psychosurgery and Mind Control, S. Chavkin (Houghton-Mifflin, 1978); “Proposal for the Center for Reduction of Life-Threatening Behavior,” J. West, 9/l/78; Correspondence, Dr J. Stubblebine, Calif. Director of Health to Dr. Louis J. West, 1/22/73 (reprinted in Individual Rights, above); “Nike Nonsense: Army Offers Unused Nike Bases to UCLA Violence Center,” Madness Network News, 2/19/74; Mind Stealers, p. 91 (Drs. Mark, Ervin), and NYT, 2/7,10/79 (electrodes); LAT, 11/26/78 (Dr. West writes “psycho-autopsy” of Jonestown.)
174. Raven, p. 347. Holdinger Statement, 5,23/80; NYT, 11/23/78 (medical records).
176. Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized Society, José M. Delgado (Harper & Row, 1969); Psychotechnology: Electronic Control of Mind & Behavior, Robert L. Schwitzgebel (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1972).
182. Hold Hands, p. 257 (Luckhoo, lawyer for Temple); White Night, pp. 257-8 (Burnham “conversion”), Sir Lionel, Fred Archer (Gift Publications, 1980) (Luckhoo biography); NYT, 12/15/79 (Luckhoo has gotten 299 murder acquittals).
183. “In the Spirit of Jimmy Jones,” Akwesasne Notes, Winter, 1982.
189. Daily World, 6/23/81, 10/23/80 (Holsinger and Cheddi Jagan); “Hill Rules,” CPD, 12/4/78 (Hill admits); NYT, 12/19/78 (guns missing at site); Personal interview with Jagan, 1981 (guns, shoes).
195. Correspondence, EPICA, 4/2/80 (Dominca plan); NYT, 4/11, 5/6, 6/12/79 (complicated intermesh of Sam Brown, Director of Peace Corps who invented Jamaica Plan, Dr. Peter Bourne and his lover Mary King, appointed Deputy Director of Action programs, the scandal of White House Drug Abuse advisor Bourne writing fake prescriptions for Carter aide Ellen Metesky, later Peace Corps director herself, and the resignation of the first Black Peace Corps administrator, Dr. Carolyn Payton (formerly Caribbean Desk there) over disagreements with Brown on the Jamaican plans); “The Jamaican Experiment,” Atlantic Monthly, 9/83 (Reagan’s current plans).
196. American Labor & U.S. Foreign Policy, Ron Radosh, p. 393 (cites other sources); Journey to Nowhere, p. 21 (Burnham, CIA role, “right wing”); White Night, ($1 million destabilization plan); “How the CIA Got Rid of Jagan,” Neal Sheehy, London Sunday Times, 2/23/67.
199. Hold Hands, p. 29, 53; Raven, p. 534; Holsinger Statement, 5/23/80 (quote); “Don’t Be Afraid to Die,” Newsweek, 3/26/79; NYT, 3/15/79 (transcripts censor it); NYT, 11/19/79 (Dwyer at ambush); NYT, 12/7,9/78 (curious “discovery,” delay).
205. “Performance of Department of State and American Embassy in Guyana in the People’s Temple Case,” Dept. of State (GPO, 1979); Daily World, 6/23/78 (Holsinger blames McCoy); Assassination of Leo Ryan, pp. 699-704 (role); NYT, 11/30/78, 12/5/78, 5/4,16/79 (Embassy criticisms); NYT, 11/20-22/78 (gave Ryan no warning); 12/2,4-6/78 (hostile to Ryan, sent FOIA to Jones).
207. CIA: A Bibliography, R. Goehlert (Vance, 1980); Gehlen: Spy of the Century, Edward Spiro (Random House, 197 1); The Pledge Betrayed, Tom Bower (Doubleday, 1982); The Belarus Secret, John Loftus (Knopf, 1982); Klaus Barbie: Butcher of Lyons, Tom Bower (Pantheon, 1984); Quiet Neighbors, Allan Ryan (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1984); The Fourth Reich, Magnus Linklater (Hodder & Stroughton, 1984);Nazi Legacy, Magnus Linklater (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1985); Secrets of the SS, Glenn Infield (Stein & Day, 1982); Skorzeny: Hitler’s Commando, Glenn Infield (St. Martin’s, 1981); “The Nazi Connection to the John F. Kennedy Assassination,” Mae Brussell, Rebel, 1982.
209. In My Father’s House, pp. 18, 19; The Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farben, Joseph Borkin (Free Press, 1978); The Sanctity of I.G. Farben’s Spy Nests, Howard Armbruster (self-published, 1956); Treason’s Peace, Howard Armbruster (1947); Trading with the Enemy, op cit., footnote 163.
211. NYT, 12/4/78 (met in England), see footnote 209 (Farben link); “Solvay et Cie Reorganizes U.S. Interests,” Houston Post, 11/29/74.
214. White Night, p. 256 (cites report), see footnote 63.
216. Assassination of Leo Ryan, p. 777 (lawyer role), see footnote 195 also, NYT, 12/4/78.
218. “Jones Disciple Goes to Court Tuesday,” Santa Cruz Sentinel, 6/19/81 (CIA link alleged at Layton trial).
219. White Night, pp. 2 10-11 (note), SFE, 2/8/79 ($ to USSR), NYT, 11/28/78 (suitcase); NYT, 11/28, 12/1,23/78 (details on her strange “suicide-murder”), NYT, 12/18/78 (letter), and 11/28, 12/18/78 (Prokes & Carter identified).
220. Nation, 3/26/79; “Jones Aide Dies After Shooting Himself,” Baltimore Sun, 3/15/79,12/8/78 ($2.5 million), NYT, 3/14/78 and Strongest Poison (FBI link).
222. White Night, p. 229 (Guyana recovers $); NYT, 12/8 ($2.5 mil); NYT, 11/18, 12/19/78 (Soviets, $39,000, refusal), and see NYT, 11/28; 12/3,10,18-20/78; and 1/1,2,9/79 (for all the smarmy details).
223. SFE, 1/9/79, and my “Jonestown Banks“.
224. God’s Banker, DiFonzi (Calvi), NYT, 6/31/82 (Panama story); NYT, 12/5/78 (Lane and Buford knew names on accounts), and see “Jonestown Banks” (disappears).
230. “The Case Against Mark Lane,” Brill, Esquire, 2/13/79; “Mark Lane: The Left’s Leading Hearse Chaser,” Katz, Mother Jones, 8/79; “People’s Temple Colony Harassed,” SFE, 10/4/78 (Lane charges CIA attack); NYT, 11/30/78 (Anthony Lewis critique); 12/5,7,16,29/78 (rumors and denials that Lane and Buford drained Swiss bank accounts), 2/4/79 (contradictory remarks), 2/4, 4/4, 9/21/79 (more charges, fake identity, theft), see Strongest Poison for comparison.
232. Hold Hands, p. 222; NYT, 6/14/78 (Lane as Ray’s attorney); Investigation of the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA), Hearings, Vols. 1-9 (GPO, 1979); NYT, 8/8,16/78 (Lane’s view of HSCA, conspiracy against him), and Strongest Poison.
235. NYT, 1/6,20/79 (Swearingen, documents), see also 1/16-18,27/79 Swearingen); Code Name Zorro, op cit.; NYT, 1/20/79 (Swearingen, Chicago FBI to 1971); “Investigating the FBI,” Policy Review, #18, Fall, 1981; David Martin “Breitel Report: New Light on FBI Use of Informants,” First Principles, 10/80; “Prying Informants Files Loose from the Hands of Attorney General — SWP v. Atty. General of U.S.,”Howard Law Journal, Vol. 22, #4, 1979.
236. Personal call, 1978
237. Strongest Poison, p. 402.
248. “Memo Discussing Smuggling,” op. cit., footnote 247.
249. “Seven Mysterious Deaths,” op cit., footnote 129.
252. Hold Hands, pp. 212-3, 223 (sandwiches); NYT, 12/8178; 1/12/79 (no warning).
253. Hold Hands, pp. 43, 44; Strongest Poison, p. 175 (underwear); WP, 11/21/78.
254. WP, 11/21/78.
257. Let the Trumpet Sound, p. 470 (brother, A.D. King with MLK day of death); NYT, 7/1/74 (“accidental drowning” death of A.D. King);Trumpet, pp. 472-3 (wound described), also Robert Cutler analysis, Grassy Knoll Gazette, 1983; NYT, 10/25/74 (Dr. Herbert MacDonnell, “no way” from window), 8/18/78 (Dr. Michael Baden to HSCA, “shot from below”).
258. NYT, 2/14/74 (Ray gets rehearing); NYT, 7/1/74 (Alberta King murdered 6/30/74); “Ray’s Day in Court,” Newsweek, 11/4/74; NYT, 10/18/74 (Ray v. Rose reheard); “Did James Earl Ray Slay the Dreamer Alone?” Writer’s Digest, 9/74.
260. “Another King Killed,” NYT Magazine, 6/8/74; “Third King Tragedy,” Time, 7/15/74; “Murder in a Church,” Nation, 6/20/74; NYT, 6/30, 7/1,9,12/74 (Chenault biog., trial); “That Certain Smile,” Newsweek, 6/15/74; NYT, 7/1,10/74 (psychiatric exam); NYT, 9/13/74 (blows kisses, points finger “like a gun” at judge, prosecutor).
262. Dayton Journal Herald, 7/2/74ff; NYT, 7/9/74 (“The Troop” — Steven Holinan, Walter Brooks, Ronald & Robert Scott, Ramona Catlin, Almeda Water, Harvey Cox, Jr., Marcus Wayne Chenault); NYT, 7/4,8/74 (biography of Rev. Hananiah Emmanuel Israel, or Rabbi Israel, AKA Rabbi Albert Emmanuel Washington, personal interview, Journal Herald reporters, 1974.
263. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 63-4; “Hill Rules,” CPD, 12/4/78, footnote 188 (Hill); NYT, 12/4174 (“Black Hebrew” Chenault).
264. NYT, 7/1,3,7,8/74 (Chenault tells Abernathy of Troop plan “to kill all Black civil rights leaders,” “religious mission partly accomplished,” and death list found in Chenault apartment: Jesse Jackson, Hosea, Cecil Williams, Martin Luther King, Sr., Ralph Abernathy, Rev. Washington (a cousin), and Fr. Divine(!), already deceased).
265. Let the Trumpet Sound, op cit., footnote 240.
266. “Psyching Out the Cult’s Collective Mania,” Drs. Delgado & J West, LAT, 11/26/78; “The Appeal of the Death Trip,” Robert J. Lifton, NYT Magazine, 1/7/79; NYT, 11/22/78, Robert Lifton (“explains”), 12/1/78 (Carter quote); 12/3/78 (“never know,” Reston); 12/5/78 (Billy Graham, “Satan”).
268. Raven, p. 403; White Night, p. 39; In My Father’s House, p. 320, see “Jonestown Banks“.
269. Raven, p. 578 (ship in Caribbean); “Jonestown Banks,” p. 4, (citing McCann quote on KGO, San Francisco); NYT, 11/23/78 (“continue Temple work”).
272. “Nomination of Director of Drug Abuse Policy Office,” Hearings, 5/13/77 (GPO, 1977); “Pipe Dreams,” P. Anderson, Washington Post Magazine, 2/14/80; NYT, 4/26/79 (White House Drug Scandal, U.N. post), see footnote 195.
273. SFC, 12/10/84 (Gairy plan), see footnote 147 (Gairy/Jones link); “Blue Christmas Coming Up,” Air Force Magazine, 1/84 (precision bombing).
275. Hold Hands, p. 257 (Luckhoo approached to defend); Raven, p. 576 (Layton trial); Raven, p. 571 (claims Ryan’s killers dead, names Kice, Wilson, Breidenbach, Touchette; what of others?), see footnotes 59, 65
276. NYT, 12/5/78 (Ryan’s mother wanted full investigation), see footnote 63; NYT, 12/8,14,15,21/78; 1/4/79 (S.F. Grand Jury, delays, stonewalling, Stoen/Hunter).
277. White Night, p. 232; Raven, p. 576 ($12 mil. hidden in accounts, airlift cots); “Eerie Shoes: Missing Money,” Time, 11/18/78; “Assets Liquidated,” Christian Century, 10/21/81; “Payoff for a Massacre,” Macleans, 9/6/72; NYT, 11/21,23,28,29, 12/3,21/78 (estimates of wealth), NYT, 11/25/78 and 5/19/79 (cost of airlift, $2 to $4.4 mil.); NYT, 12/3,5,7,14/78 (Pentagon, Charles Garry, Justice Department, families claim it), 12/19/78 and 1/3,24/79 and 2/11/79 (State Department, IRS, Guyanese, court receiver claim it).
278. Hold Hands, p. 134; Raven, p. 590, note 66; Daily World, 6/23/81 (Holsinger suit); Personal interview with Holsinger, 1982 (suspects military intelligence).
281. “Who Shot RR,” Lenny Lapon, Continuing Inquiry, 5/22/81; “The Day the President Was Shot,” Investigative Reporter, 1/82.
285. SFE, 12/18/80, op cit., footnote 194.
286. Hold Hands, pp. 40, 165, 187 (photo).
287. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 234-5, Hold Hands, pp. 211-2 (FBI predict more); The Evidence of Things Not Seen, James Baldwin (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1985) (Wayne Williams, Atlanta child murders).
291. 1984, George Orwell (New American Library, 1961) (The book was originally entitled 1948, not 1984.)